File Name: nigerian foreign policy and economic development since independence .zip
Economists who want to compare the living standards of one country to another or the wealth of one country over time often use gross domestic product GDP. Designed to measure the value of a country's production of goods and services, the metric has for decades provided a critical framework to guide policy decisions that affect people's living standards. But as issues such as the environment and wealth inequality gain political prominence, some economists argue GDP fails to account for important factors of societal wellbeing that are not directly tied to economic production, such as air and water quality, health, education, and leisure.
Tanzania has undergone impressive political and economic developments and improvements in social welfare in recent years. However, the country continues to face considerable development challenges, not least in essential areas such as economic distribution, population growth, corruption and a stronger division between party and state. At the same time, new opportunities are arising which have the potential to become decisive for the necessary changes and reforms. Tanzania has been a macro-economic success story for nearly two decades. The rate of economic growth increased from 3.
Bureau of African Affairs. From to , Nigeria experienced a series of military coups, excluding the short-lived second republic between and The month long civil war, which ended in January , resulted in million casualties. Following the inauguration of a civilian president, the U. Nigeria is the largest economy and most populous country in Africa with an estimated population of more than million, which is expected to grow to million by and become the third most populous country in the world after China and India. Nigeria had an estimated gross domestic product of billion USD in Despite persistent structural weaknesses such as a deficient transportation infrastructure, the Nigerian economy grew briskly for the decade ending in
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Since independence, Indonesian foreign relations have adhered to a "free and active" foreign policy, seeking to play a role in regional affairs commensurate with its size and location but avoiding involvement in conflicts among major powers. Indonesian foreign policy under the "New Order" government of President Suharto moved away from the stridently anti-Western, anti-American posturing that characterised the latter part of the Sukarno era. Following Suharto's ouster in , Indonesia's government has preserved the broad outlines of Suharto's independent, moderate foreign policy. Preoccupation with domestic problems has not prevented successive presidents from travelling abroad. Indonesia 's relations with the international community were strained as a result of its invasion of neighbouring East Timor in December , the subsequent annexation and occupation , the independence referendum in and the resulting violence afterwards. After the transformation from Suharto's regime to a relatively open and democratic country in the 21st century , Indonesia today exercises its influence to promote co-operation, development, democracy, security, peace and stability in the region through its leadership in ASEAN. Indonesia managed to play a role as a peacemaker in the Cambodia-Thailand conflict over the Preah Vihear temple.
Almost immediately upon gaining independence, India experienced a major threat to national unity and stability. The country prepared to divide along the borders of two of its rare overlapping cleavages to create a separate Pakistani nation with a Muslim majority one in the west corresponding to the borders of presentday Pakistan and one in the east corresponding to present-day Bangladesh. Indeed, the cleavages that remain are essentially cross-cutting with the exception of Kashmir , rendering a relatively stable contemporary Indian nation. Similarly, as a direct result of the same Hindu-Muslim riots that accompanied independence and generated "fears of destabilizing secessionist movements," Indian leaders felt compelled to give precedence to "the preservation of national unity" over states' rights. This fact is evidenced by the resultant Indian constitution that was "explicit in asserting the unity and primacy of the central government".
Nigeria is an important actor on the African and global stage.
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