File Name: building services water supply and sanitation file.zip
Water supply is the provision of water by public utilities , commercial organisations, community endeavors or by individuals, usually via a system of pumps and pipes. Clean water supply—in particular, water that is not polluted with fecal matter from lack of sanitation —is one of the most important determinants of public health with respect to the occurrence of diarrhoeal diseases and death among children under the age of five years, especially in low and middle income countries. Water supply systems get water from a variety of locations after appropriate treatment, including groundwater aquifers , surface water lakes and rivers , and the sea through desalination. The water treatment steps include, in most cases, purification , disinfection through chlorination and sometimes fluoridation.
Plumbing is any system that conveys fluids for a wide range of applications. Plumbing uses pipes , valves , plumbing fixtures , tanks , and other apparatuses to convey fluids. In the developed world, plumbing infrastructure is critical to public health and sanitation. Boilermakers and pipefitters are not plumbers although they work with piping as part of their trade and their work can include some plumbing.
Plumbing originated during ancient civilizations, as they developed public baths and needed to provide potable water and wastewater removal for larger numbers of people. The Mesopotamians introduced the world to clay sewer pipes around BCE, with the earliest examples found in the Temple of Bel at Nippur and at Eshnunna ,  used to remove wastewater from sites, and capture rainwater, in wells.
The city of Uruk contains the oldest known examples of brick constructed Latrines , constructed atop interconnecting fired clay sewer pipes, c. Standardized earthen plumbing pipes with broad flanges making use of asphalt for preventing leakages appeared in the urban settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization by BC. Copper piping appeared in Egypt by BCE, with the Pyramid of Sahure and adjoining temple complex at Abusir , found to be connected by a copper waste pipe.
The word "plumber" dates from the Roman Empire. Roman roofs used lead in conduits and drain pipes  and some were also covered with lead. Lead was also used for piping and for making baths. Plumbing reached its early apex in ancient Rome , which saw the introduction of expansive systems of aqueducts , tile wastewater removal, and widespread use of lead pipes. The Romans used lead pipe inscriptions to prevent water theft.
With the Fall of Rome both water supply and sanitation stagnated—or regressed—for well over 1, years. Improvement was very slow, with little effective progress made until the growth of modern densely populated cities in the s.
During this period, public health authorities began pressing for better waste disposal systems to be installed, to prevent or control epidemics of disease. Earlier, the waste disposal system had consisted of collecting waste and dumping it on the ground or into a river.
Eventually the development of separate, underground water and sewage systems eliminated open sewage ditches and cesspools. In post-classical Kilwa The wealthy enjoyed indoor plumbing in their stone homes. Most large cities today pipe solid wastes to sewage treatment plants in order to separate and partially purify the water, before emptying into streams or other bodies of water.
For potable water use, galvanized iron piping was commonplace in the United States from the late s until around After that period, copper piping took over, first soft copper with flared fittings, then with rigid copper tubing using soldered fittings. The use of lead for potable water declined sharply after World War II because of increased awareness of the dangers of lead poisoning.
At this time, copper piping was introduced as a better and safer alternative to lead pipes. The major categories of plumbing systems or subsystems are: . A water pipe is a pipe or tube , frequently made of plastic or metal, [a] that carries pressurized and treated fresh water to a building as part of a municipal water system , as well as inside the building. Lead was the favoured material for water pipes for many centuries because its malleability made it practical to work into the desired shape.
Such use was so common that the word "plumbing" derives from plumbum , the Latin word for lead. This was a source of lead-related health problems in the years before the health hazards of ingesting lead were fully understood; among these were stillbirths and high rates of infant mortality. Lead water pipes were still widely used in the early 20th century and remain in many households. Lead-tin alloy solder was commonly used to join copper pipes , but modern practice uses tin-antimony alloy solder instead in order to eliminate lead hazards.
Despite the Romans' common use of lead pipes, their aqueducts rarely poisoned people. Unlike other parts of the world where lead pipes cause poisoning, the Roman water had so much calcium in it that a layer of plaque prevented the water contacting the lead itself. What often causes confusion is the large amount of evidence of widespread lead poisoning, particularly amongst those who would have had easy access to piped water,  an unfortunate result of lead being used in cookware and as an additive to processed food and drink for example as a preservative in wine.
Wooden pipes were used in London and elsewhere during the 16th and 17th centuries. The pipes were hollowed-out logs which were tapered at the end with a small hole in which the water would pass through. Wooden pipes were used in Philadelphia,  Boston, and Montreal in the s. Built-up wooden tubes were widely used in the USA during the 20th century. These pipes used in place of corrugated iron or reinforced concrete pipes were made of sections cut from short lengths of wood.
Locking of adjacent rings with hardwood dowel pins produced a flexible structure. About , feet of these wooden pipes were installed during WW2 in drainage culverts, storm sewers and conduits, under highways and at army camps, naval stations, airfields and ordnance plants.
Cast iron and ductile iron pipe was long a lower-cost alternative to copper before the advent of durable plastic materials but special non-conductive fittings must be used where transitions are to be made to other metallic pipes except for terminal fittings in order to avoid corrosion owing to electrochemical reactions between dissimilar metals see galvanic cell.
Bronze fittings and short pipe segments are commonly used in combination with various materials. The difference between pipes and tubes is a matter of sizing. These sizing schemes allow for universal adaptation of transitional fittings.
When used in agricultural irrigation, the singular form "pipe" is often used as a plural. Pipe is available in rigid joints , which come in various lengths depending on the material. Tubing, in particular copper, comes in rigid hard tempered joints or soft tempered annealed rolls. The temper of the copper, whether it is a rigid joint or flexible roll, does not affect the sizing. The thicknesses of the water pipe and tube walls can vary.
Because piping and tubing are commodities, having a greater wall thickness implies higher initial cost. Thicker walled pipe generally implies greater durability and higher pressure tolerances. Pipe wall thickness is denoted by various schedules or for large bore polyethylene pipe in the UK by the Standard Dimension Ratio SDR , defined as the ratio of the pipe diameter to its wall thickness.
Pipe wall thickness increases with schedule, and is available in schedules 20, 40, 80, and higher in special cases. The schedule is largely determined by the operating pressure of the system, with higher pressures commanding greater thickness. Copper tubing is available in four wall thicknesses: type DWV thinnest wall; only allowed as drain pipe per UPC , type 'M' thin; typically only allowed as drain pipe by IPC code , type 'L' thicker, standard duty for water lines and water service , and type 'K' thickest, typically used underground between the main and the meter.
Wall thickness does not affect pipe or tubing size. The same applies to pipe schedules. As a result, a slight increase in pressure losses is realized due to a decrease in flowpath as wall thickness is increased. Water systems of ancient times relied on gravity for the supply of water, using pipes or channels usually made of clay , lead , bamboo, wood, or stone.
Hollowed wooden logs wrapped in steel banding were used for plumbing pipes, particularly water mains. Logs were used for water distribution in England close to years ago. US cities began using hollowed logs in the late s through the s. Today, most plumbing supply pipe is made out of steel, copper, and plastic; most waste also known as "soil"  out of steel, copper, plastic, and cast iron.
The straight sections of plumbing systems are called "pipes" or "tubes". A pipe is typically formed via casting or welding , whereas a tube is made through extrusion. Pipe normally has thicker walls and may be threaded or welded, while tubing is thinner-walled and requires special joining techniques such as brazing , compression fitting , crimping , or for plastics, solvent welding.
These joining techniques are discussed in more detail in the piping and plumbing fittings article. It is rarely used today for new construction residential plumbing. Steel pipe has National Pipe Thread NPT standard tapered male threads, which connect with female tapered threads on elbows, tees, couplers, valves , and other fittings. Galvanized steel often known simply as " galv " or " iron " in the plumbing trade is relatively expensive, and difficult to work with due to weight and requirement of a pipe threader.
It remains in common use for repair of existing "galv" systems and to satisfy building code non-combustibility requirements typically found in hotels, apartment buildings and other commercial applications. It is also extremely durable and resistant to mechanical abuse.
Black lacquered steel pipe is the most widely used pipe material for fire sprinklers and natural gas. In potable water distribution service, galvanized steel pipe has a service life of about 30 to 50 years, although it is not uncommon for it to be less in geographic areas with corrosive water contaminants. Copper pipe and tubing was widely used for domestic water systems in the latter half of the twentieth century. Demand for copper products has fallen due to the dramatic increase in the price of copper, resulting in increased demand for alternative products including PEX and stainless steel.
Plastic pipe is in wide use for domestic water supply and drain-waste-vent DWV pipe. Principal types include: Polyvinyl chloride PVC was produced experimentally in the 19th century but did not become practical to manufacture until , when Waldo Semon of BF Goodrich Co. In the s, plastics manufacturers in Western Europe and Japan began producing acrylonitrile butadiene styrene ABS pipe.
The method for producing cross-linked polyethylene PEX was also developed in the s. Plastic supply pipes have become increasingly common, with a variety of materials and fittings employed. Due to its toxicity , most cities moved away from lead water-supply piping by the s in the United States,  although lead pipes were approved by national plumbing codes into the s,  and lead was used in plumbing solder for drinking water until it was banned in A specific water pipe made for use with pressure vessels.
The pipe can sustain high pressure-water and is relatively small. Connecting to an existing water line white pipe with a stainless steel tapping sleeve and valve red. A concrete thrust block is being formed behind the new connection.
In addition to lengths of pipe or tubing, pipe fittings such as valves, elbows, tees, and unions. Plumbing fixtures are exchangeable devices that use water and can be connected to a building's plumbing system. They are considered to be "fixtures", in that they are semi-permanent parts of buildings, not usually owned or maintained separately.
Plumbing fixtures are seen by and designed for the end-users. Some examples of fixtures include water closets  also known as toilets , urinals , bidets , showers , bathtubs , utility and kitchen sinks , drinking fountains , ice makers , humidifiers, air washers , fountains , and eye wash stations.
Threaded pipe joints are sealed with thread seal tape or pipe dope. Many plumbing fixtures are sealed to their mounting surfaces with plumber's putty. Plumbing equipment includes devices often behind walls or in utility spaces which are not seen by the general public.
It includes water meters , pumps , expansion tanks, back flow preventers , water filters , UV sterilization lights, water softeners , water heaters , heat exchangers , gauges, and control systems. There are many tools a plumber needs to do a good plumbing job. While many simple plumbing tasks can be completed with a few common hand held tools, other more complex jobs require specialised tools, designed specifically to make the job easier.
This literature review explores the potential contribution of water, sanitation and hygiene service delivery towards peace-building and state-building in conflict-affected and fragile states. The review considers how different service delivery modalities — namely who delivers what services, for whom, and how — can help or hinder state-building and peace-building goals. The project seeks to enhance the evidence base with case studies from the field in South Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. A reciprocal relationship with services is commonly assumed: among their many negative impacts, conflict and fragility disrupt services. Reinstating them, in the right way, can enhance the prospects for peaceful, stable societies and states.
Building Technology pp Cite as. This chapter examines the methods of supplying water to buildings, cold and hot water supply arrangements, sanitary appliances, waste systems and hot water heating. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage. Sanitation systems aim to protect human health by providing a clean environment that will stop the transmission of disease , especially through the fecal—oral route.
Session B Water Supply System - Calculation Methods, Modelling. B1. CALCULATION FOR special elderly nursing home, the care house and the day service center. Facility T the sanitary convenience level of the building and are actually the result of. “mechanical” hampdenlodgethame.org 4. Kõiv, T.-A.Reply
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