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Search inside document. In Fig. Thermodynamic process namig,cycle or cyclic process. Let the system is initially in equilibrium state when the piston is at A, where the pressure is pq, volume v, and temperature T,, as shown in Fig. The weight W on the piston is composed of number of small weights which balances the upward force exerted by the system. At this point B, the system again comes to an equilibrium state where the pressure is p,, volume v, and temperature 7, But the intermediate states through which the system has passed, are non-equilibrium states whose properties pressure, volume and temperature are not uniform throughout the system and thus the state of the system cannot be well defined.
Such a process is called irreversible or non-equilibrium process, as shown by a broken line in Fig. Non-equilibrium and quasi-static r quasi-equilibrium process.
Now, if the small weights on the piston are removed one by one very slowly, then at any instant of the upward movement of the piston , the deviation of the state from the thermodynamic equilibrium will be infinitesimally small, if the gas system is isolated, Thus, every state passed through by the system will be in equilibrium state. Such a process, which is the locus of all these equilibrium points passedghrough the system, is known as quasi-static or quasi-equilibrium process.
A process which can reversed in direction and the system retraces the same equilibrium states is known as reversible process. Temperature tis an intensive thermodynamic property, which determines the degree of hotness or the level of heat intensity of a body. A body is said to be at a high temperature or hot, if it shows high level of heat intensity in it, Similarly, a body is said to be at a Jow temperature or cold, ifit shows a low level of heat intensity.
Following are the two commonly used scales for measuring the temperature of a body : I. Celsius or centigrade scale, and 2. Fahrenheit scale. Each of these scales is based on two fixed points known as freezing point of water under atmospheric pressure or ice point and the boiling point of water or steam point.
Celsius or centigrade scale. This scale was first used by Celsius in This scale is mostly used by engineers and scientists. The freezing point of water on this scale is marked as zero, and the boiling point of water as This scale was first used in In this scale, the freezing point of water 1s marked as 32 and the boiling point of water as Find the temperature which has the same value on both the Celsius and Fahrenheit scales.
Absolute Temperature As a matter of fact, the zero readings of Celsius and Fahrenheit scales are chosen arbitrarily for the purpose of simplicity. It helps us in our calculations, when changes of temperature in a process are known. But, whenever the value of temperature is used in equations relating to fundamental laws, then the value of temperature, whose reference point is true zero or absolute zero, is used.
The temperature, below which the temperature of any substance can not fall, is known as absolute zero temperature. A system is said to be in mechanical equilibrium, when there is no unbalanced forces acting on any part of the system or the system as a whole. Thermal equilibrium. A system is said to be in thermal equilibrium, when there is no temperature difference between the parts of the system or between the system and the surroundings.
Chemical equilibrium. When these bodies are brought in contact, the hot body becomes colder, and the cold body becomes warmer. If these bodies remain in contact for some time, a state reaches when there is no further observable change in the properties of the two bodies.
This is a state of thermal equilibrium, and at this stage the two bodies have the equal temperatures. Tt thus follows that when two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with each other, their temperatures are equal. The unit of pressure depends upon the units of force and area.
In SL. For pressures below atmospheric, the gauge pressure will be negative. This negative gauge pressure is known a: vacuum pressure. Standard Temperature and Pressure S. Introduction 13 Example 1. The pressure of steam inside a boiler, as measured by pressure gauge, is 1 Nim. The barometric pressure of the atmosphere is mm of mercury. Example 1. Ina condenser of a steam power plant, the vacuum is recorded as mm of mercury.
Heavand workea path function. The heat can not be interpreted similar to temperature and pressure. Hence, work is an inexact differential and is written as 5W. Since the work can not be interpreted similar to temperature and pressure of the system, therefore it is a path function and it depends upon the process, It is not a point function as the temperature and pressure.
These are 1. The heat and work are both transient phenomena. The systems clo not possess heat or work. They are observed at the boundary of the system. The heat and work are path functions and hence they are inexact differentials.
They are written as 6Q and 8W. Generally, a bigger unit of power called kilowatt briefly written as kW is used which is equal to W. Notes, 1. It is always less than unity and is represented as percentage. Mathematically, Power output Efficiency. The area under the pressure - volume p-v diay given by p do.
First law of thermodynamics, and 3. Second law of thermodynamics. Jaws are discussed, in detail, as follows : roth Law of Thermodynamics This law states, "When two systems are each in thermal equilibrium with a third system, then She two systems are also in thermal equilibrium with one another. According to this law, when a system undergoes a change of state or a thermody- ssamic process , then both heat transfer and work transfer takes place.
The quantity E is an extensive property and represents the total energy of the system at a particular state. When there is no change in potential energy of the system i. When a closed system undergoes a thermodynamic cycle, the net heat transfer is equal to the net work transfer. This statement does not specify the direction of flow of heat and work ie whether the heat flows from a hot body to a cold body or from a cold body toa hot body. It also doet not give any condition under which these transfers take place.
The heat energy and mechanical work are mutually convertible. Though the mechanica work can be fully converted into heat energy, but only a part of heat energy can be converted int mechanical work, This means that the heat energy and mechanical work are not fully mutually convertible.
In other words, there is a limitation on the conversion of one form of energy into another form. It is defined as Fig:!. Perpetual motion a machine which produces work energy without consuming an "chine of the first kind, equivalent of energy from other source, Such a machine, as shown in Fig, 1.
In other words, no actual heat engine, working on a cyclic process, can convert whole of the heat supplied to it, into mechanical work. It means that there isa degradation of energy in the process of producing mechanical work from the heat supplied. Thus the Kelvin - Planck statement of the second law of thermodynamics, is sometimes known as law of degradation of energy.
In this case, consider that heat energy Q, from the high temperature reservoir or source at temperature T, is supplied to the engine.
Refrigeration and. The discharge pressure is Now you can also download the book Refrigeration and Air conditioning By C P arora The book covers following topics 1. In computing and especially in enterprise data centers, HVAC systems control the ambient environment temperature, humidity, air flow, and air filtering and must be planned for and operated along with other data center components such as computing hardware, cabling, data storage, fire protection, physical security systems and power. See more ideas about refrigeration and air conditioning, hvac air conditioning, hvac repair. They use compression to raise the temperature of a low-pressure gas, and also remove vapor from the evaporator.
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Khurmi and J. The present Edition of this treatise has been thoroughly revised and brought up-to-date. Engineering Mechanics By R. It is a Book which may helpful for. Thermal Engineering by Khurmi.
Mollier Diagram Calculator The vapor is com-pressed, following the constant entropy line to the pressure cor-. Rajput has over 35 years of experience teaching mechanical and electrical engineering and has authored several books and journal articles in these areas. These symbols help create accurate HVAC diagrams and documentations. Mollier diagram calculator.
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