list of vitamins in fruits and vegetables pdf

List of vitamins in fruits and vegetables pdf

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Vitamin content of f ruit and vegetables


Look to Fruits and Vegetables for Good Eye Health

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Vitamin A, along with other vitamins, minerals and other compounds, is an essential micronutrient. This means that our bodies cannot manufacture it and therefore it has to be included in our diet.

Vitamin A from food is stored in the liver until required by the body and is bound to protein before being transported to where it is needed. Vitamin A is essential for many physiological processes, including maintaining the integrity and function of all surface tissues epithelia : for example, the skin, the lining of the respiratory tract, the gut, the bladder, the inner ear and the eye.

Vitamin A supports the daily replacement of skin cells and ensures that tissues such as the conjunctiva are able to produce mucous and provide a barrier to infection. Vitamin A is also essential for vision under conditions of poor lighting, for maintaining a healthy immune system, for growth and development and for reproduction.

Vitamin A supports many systems in the body. For this reason, vitamin A deficiency is now referred to as vitamin A deficiency disorders. For simplicity, however, we will continue to use the older term vitamin A deficiency VAD.

One of the main consequences of VAD is an increased risk of severe infection. Infection increases the body's demand for vitamin A and so the deficiency gets worse. Children can therefore become involved in a vicious cycle of deficiency and infection, which is why vitamin A deficiency is such an important cause of child mortality.

There are two main sources of vitamin A: animal sources and plant sources. All the sources of vitamin A need some fat in the diet to aid absorption. Liver, including fish liver, is a very good source. Other animal sources are egg yolk not the white and dairy products such as milk including human breast milk , cheese and butter.

Meat, from the animal's muscles, is not a good source. Plant sources contain vitamin A in the form of carotenoids which have to be converted during digestion into retinol before the body can use it. Carotenoids are the pigments that give plants their green colour and some fruits and vegetables their red or orange colour.

Plant sources of vitamin A include: mangos, papaya, many of the squashes, carrots, sweet potatoes and maize but not the white varieties. Other good sources of vitamin A are red palm oil and biruti palm oil. Note: if these oils are boiled to remove their colour the vitamin A is destroyed. Some fruits and vegetables are easier to digest than others, and it has been shown that dark green leafy vegetables such as spinach or amaranth are harder to digest.

Mashing these vegetables up after cooking makes them easier to digest. When mashed they can be added to staples, which also makes them easier to disguise — children the world over do not like green vegetables! It is important that all sources of vitamin A are not overcooked, as this can reduce the vitamin A content. Ultraviolet light can also reduce the vitamin A content of food, so drying of fruits such as mangos should not be done in direct sunlight see page Diets that rely heavily on local carbohydrates, such as rice, fufu, ugali, cassava, millet and sorghum, are very low in vitamin A, unless vitamin A-rich foods are added.

Because children are growing, they need a relatively high intake of vitamin A; about half as much as an adult. Another reason for the relatively high intake is because children are prone to infection which increases the metabolic rate and hence the rate at which they use vitamin A. Breast milk contains enough vitamin A for children up to six months of age, but after that complementary foods the foods given in addition to breast milk should include small amounts of vitamin A-rich foods.

For a young child, a balanced diet that is rich in vitamin A should include helpings of at least 2—3 vitamin A-rich fruits and vegetables a day, plus a little bit of fat to aid absorption. Young children are totally dependent on their mother or other carers for their diet, and so it is vital that mothers and carers of young children know what constitutes a healthy diet for their child.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Community Eye Health v. Community Eye Health. Clare Gilbert. Find articles by Clare Gilbert. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Open in a separate window. Food sources of vitamin A. Vitamin A, whether from plant or animal sources, is essential for health. Sources of vitamin A There are two main sources of vitamin A: animal sources and plant sources.

How much vitamin A does a child need? Support Center Support Center. External link. Please review our privacy policy.

Vitamin content of f ruit and vegetables

Keep your debt managable during challenging times. Join our online community discussion. Studies have shown that anthocyanins may benefit brain health , help to lower inflammation , and fight cancer and heart disease. In addition to anthocyanins, purple produce offers other key vitamins and nutrients. Here are a few purple powerhouses that nutritionists recommend adding to your dinner plate. This is similar in taste to white and green asparagus, but is also loaded with vitamin C, according to Brooking.


Most people know that fruits and vegetables are good for you, but not as many are familiar with the differences between them. In terms of structure, taste and nutrition, there are many distinctions between fruits and vegetables. This article will take a closer look at the differences between fruits and vegetables, and the health benefits they can provide.

What are the most healthful vegetables?

Most people know that fruits and vegetables are good for you, but not as many are familiar with the differences between them. In terms of structure, taste and nutrition, there are many distinctions between fruits and vegetables.

Look to Fruits and Vegetables for Good Eye Health

Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans or other animals as food. The original meaning is still commonly used and is applied to plants collectively to refer to all edible plant matter, including the flowers , fruits , stems , leaves , roots , and seeds. The alternate definition of the term is applied somewhat arbitrarily, often by culinary and cultural tradition. It may exclude foods derived from some plants that are fruits , flowers , nuts , and cereal grains, but include savoury fruits such as tomatoes and courgettes , flowers such as broccoli , and seeds such as pulses. Originally, vegetables were collected from the wild by hunter-gatherers and entered cultivation in several parts of the world, probably during the period 10, BC to 7, BC, when a new agricultural way of life developed. At first, plants which grew locally would have been cultivated, but as time went on, trade brought exotic crops from elsewhere to add to domestic types.

We include products we think are useful for our readers. If you buy through links on this page, we may earn a small commission. Fat-soluble vitamins are vitamins A, D, E, and K. They are present in foods containing fats. The body absorbs these vitamins as it does dietary fats.

Sufficient intake of fruits and vegetables has been associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases and body weight management but the exact mechanism is unknown. The World Health Organisation and Food and Agriculture of the United Nation reports recommend adults to consume at least five servings of fruits and vegetables per day excluding starchy vegetables. This review focuses on the importance of fruits and vegetables as well as the benefits and progress of nutrition education in improving intake.

Fruit and vegetables


  • Josette M. 13.05.2021 at 20:31

    Fruit and vegetables should be an important part of your daily diet.

  • Paolo R. 17.05.2021 at 04:59

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