File Name: sudan and south sudan conflict .zip
The Palgrave Handbook of Ethnicity pp Cite as. This chapter analyzes ethno-communal conflicts in Sudan and South Sudan, which gained independence in
This article addresses the social and political implications of wartime and post-war resource capture in South Sudan. After the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, the military elite in power has maintained this lower stratum through the deployment of nepotistic and clientelist networks. The article discusses three modes through which the elite has sought to distinguish itself, showing how the elite has used the lower stratum to demonstrate its prestige and influence in the post-war period, and how the elite's ostentation and widespread corruption have triggered popular resentment in which old ethnic enmities sometimes resurface.
Structural Causes 1. This thesis analyses causes of the current South Sudanese civil war that broke out on 15 December The clash in the Presidential Guards Unit triggered the war when President Salva Kiir, from the Jieng Dinka ethnic group, ordered the disarmament of Presidential guards from the Naath Nuer ethnic group.
He also ordered execution of anyone from the Naath ethnicity, which led to the massacre of more than 20, Naath civilians in the capital Juba within two days. In retaliation, the Naath conducted a counterstrike against the government and Jieng ethnic group, and slaughtered the Jieng civilians. Lack of knowledge produced poor governance, recklessness, kleptocracy, ethnocentrism, tribalism, loss of vision and lack of adherence to public causes. I thank my God for the health, insight and dedication he gave me during my studies.
I could not have done this task without him. I extend my gratitude to my advisor Dr. Jack Rosenzweig who guided me throughout the thesis writing. I owe him a debt of gratitude for his time and expertise.
I thank the Atlantic International University for the scholarship it offered me to cover some of my study costs. I thank my tutor Kinmberly Diaz for her assistance throughout my studies. She was so instrumental in my studies. The Jieng Dinka tribe is the largest ethnic group in the country and the Naath Nuer tribe is the second largest tribe. Riek Machar, triggered the war. Like Machar, General Matip hailed from the Naath ethnic group. The bodyguards of each leader were from their respective tribes and the leaders objected to the assimilation of their bodyguards into the national army because neither trusted the other, and because assimilation would mean that they would not have direct command over their own guards.
Hence, they kept their bodyguards in their residences. The enmity and mistrust between the leaders reflects the latent conflict between the Naath and Jieng. Eventually, however, their bodyguards were united into a single entity — the Presidential Guards — to protect the Presidency as a whole. Consequently, Kiir unilaterally recruited more of his tribesmen into the Presidential Guards Unit, a move that the Naath ethnic group interpreted as a sign of an imminent war.
Hoth argued that Kiir should not bypass the military chain of command as recruitment involves budget. He contended that the President would have consulted him so he Hoth would evaluate the necessity of the recruitment. Tensions between Kiir and Machar had existed since Kiir argued on various occasions that Machar had tried to sabotage his government, accusations that Machar constantly denied.
Nonetheless, Kiir was hesitant to fire Machar, fearing ethnic tensions. After his removal, Machar began criticizing Kiir openly and demanded a change to the leadership. He accused Kiir of dictatorship, incompetence, nepotism, tribalism and corruption. Consequently, Machar called for the amendments to the national constitution of South Sudan, and of the SPLM, arguing that they gave Kiir absolute powers.
However, he did not raise these flaws when he was the Vice-President, even though people complained of such injustice, and raised them now to injure Kiir politically. Machar and his factional colleagues intensified their campaign to remove Kiir as the Chair of the Party. They regrouped as a majority in the Politburo and demanded Kiir to call an emergency Politburo meeting. However, Kiir refused to do so, knowing his position was in danger.
Instead, he deployed the Ugandan military in Juba, a conspicuous sign of military confrontation. The tension continued until it became obvious that the country was sliding into a full-scale war. Thus, the NLC amended the contentious issues according to the will of Kiir the majority.
As war loomed, the country expected Machar to desist from the campaign to remove Kiir because he had lost democratically. However, he kept intensifying his public calls to remove Kiir through civil unrest. His faction also penetrated the army and instigated military allies to attack should Kiir stand in their way.
This triggered the war as the guards resisted the disarmament. The order incorporated execution of anyone with Naath ethnicity. However, Machar escaped to the outskirts of Juba, and the squad killed some of his bodyguards and bombarded his home with tanks. The forces clashed on ethnic lines: the Naath versus sixty-three South Sudanese tribes in the army. The atrocities committed included compelling victims to eat flesh and drink blood of slain family members; executing the wounded and sick on hospital beds; executing the blind and disabled; compelling mothers to slit the throats of their children; forcing victims to have sexual intercourse with their mothers; and raping women, including the aged, to death.
Woman died with huge pieces of wood inserted into their private parts. Was he shifting responsibility to another person? Why did Kiir order such cruelty against opponents whom he had already defeated politically at the NLC meeting? A month into the war, they disclosed that the number of the Jieng slaughtered exceeded the number of the Naath slaughtered in Juba. They declared their revenge mission accomplished even if the war ceased.
The war involved foreign powers. Sudan provides limited logistical support to Machar-led insurgents. What motivates these powers in the war is a significant topic to study. Then, what was the cause of the war and on what ground did Museveni deploy his forces in South Sudan even before the war? Another development is the arrest of Machar in South Africa in , which contributed to the disarray of his force.
How could the African leaders exclude the only fighter from the peace negotiations, and yet, expect a solution to the war? Moreover, Kiir also came up with the national dialog program that excludes Machar. With whom is he dialoguing if not Machar, who is the main opponent? The research question — What are the causes of the civil war? The thesis has five chapters. Though other tribes are part of the war, they were not part of the cause of it.
Chapter III analyses structural causes, proximate causes and triggers of the war. The sacking of Riek Machar and colleagues from the government in is the proximate cause. The trigger of the war is the clash of the Presidential guards that led to the massacre of more than 20, Naath civilians in Juba. Chapter IV analyses actors of the war. The thesis categorizes actors into four tiers. The Second Tier comprises ethnic groups that engage in the war, the Third Tier comprises foreign fighters assisting the government and rebels due to political and economic reasons, and the Fourth Tier comprises the African Union, United Nations, Intergovernmental Authority on Development and the Troika United States, United Kingdom and Norway.
Chapter V analyses the dynamics of the war, including current issues of the war and obstacles to peace, and analyses the best-case, middle-case and the worst-case scenarios. Pan-Africanists held the view that colonialists distorted the African tradition of governance and substituted it with an authoritarian, exploitative and chaotic system that Africans should eliminate if it is to survive as a nation. Such views were foundational to the unity of Africans in their struggle for the liberation and independence of Africa.
I still recall, quite vividly, the palpable collective resolve, dedication and commitment of our forebears, to unite and free our continent from the twin scourges of colonialism and poverty. Moreover, the late Prime Minister Meles Zenawi of Ethiopia furiously warned the African leaders who had advocated for the relocation of the AU formerly Organization of African Unity headquarters from Addis Ababa to another African city that such a move denied the sacrifice Ethiopia paid for Africa.
He argued that the relocation campaign desecrated the vision of the forebears of Africa. Here is the excerpt:. Addis Ababa ruled at that stage by Emperor Haile Selassie - a person who is very different ideologically from this new generation of African leaders. Nevertheless, there is one fact that nobody can deny. Irrespective of what government rules Ethiopia, Ethiopia has always been committed to the African independence and liberation.
Who trained Mandela? Emperor Haile Selassie! The reactionary trained Mandela the revolutionary! Mandela was trained in Ethiopia! Who supported Mugabe in his fight against Rhodesia? Internally Mengistu was a butcher! However, on the issues of Africa Mengistu was as solid as Haile Selassie was!
Newsdire Is South Sudan on a similar path? The SPLM was the political wing of the rebel movement and the current ruling party of South Sudan and the SPLA was the military wing of the movement; these terms are used interchangeably in this thesis. Two key questions polarized the South Sudanese:.
Although not as contentious, the question of whether the movement should follow the communist ideology was also an issue Yoh Furthermore, as well as the leadership and ideological battles, there was a latent conflict of ethnicities, which added dangerous fuel to the political fire.
Such latent conflict did not occur in isolation. The rivals took it with them from the Sudan and the new movement was about to be the next warfield to them. Control of the movement meant having an apparatus to oppress others. Colonel Gai and Akuot Atem were in the same faction at this time. Gai proposed that Akuot, as a senior politician, was the right person to lead the movement and he Gai would be the Chief of General Staff.
However, Garang objected to this proposition, arguing that Akuot does not qualify to lead because he had betrayed the Southern Sudanese during their struggle against the government of the Sudan. Garang proposed that Akuot should serve in a different portfolio, such as foreign affairs. Garang had no problem with Gai becoming the leader. Alternatively, he contended that if Gai wanted to be the Chief of General Staff, he Garang should be the Chair of the movement.
Structural Causes 1. This thesis analyses causes of the current South Sudanese civil war that broke out on 15 December The clash in the Presidential Guards Unit triggered the war when President Salva Kiir, from the Jieng Dinka ethnic group, ordered the disarmament of Presidential guards from the Naath Nuer ethnic group. He also ordered execution of anyone from the Naath ethnicity, which led to the massacre of more than 20, Naath civilians in the capital Juba within two days. In retaliation, the Naath conducted a counterstrike against the government and Jieng ethnic group, and slaughtered the Jieng civilians. Lack of knowledge produced poor governance, recklessness, kleptocracy, ethnocentrism, tribalism, loss of vision and lack of adherence to public causes. I thank my God for the health, insight and dedication he gave me during my studies.
Canada opened a bilateral office in , and announced the establishment of a diplomatic mission in Juba in September , appointing its first resident Ambassador in January Canada supports regional and international mediation efforts towards a peaceful and sustainable resolution of conflict in South Sudan. Canadian government representatives have worked to support peace and development, including through humanitarian assistance, early recovery programming, peacekeeping and peace building, and diplomatic efforts to lay the foundation for sustainable development. Current projects in South Sudan are aimed at a peaceful resolution of the crisis, through supporting efforts that reduce inter-communal violence, promote inclusive citizen engagement, and increase accountability. Canada's commercial footprint in South Sudan is modest, due in large part to ongoing concerns about political stability. In , the majority of Canadian merchandise exports to South Sudan were aircrafts or aircraft parts, followed by textile and clothing items, and sea products. The vast majority of imports from South Sudan were electrical or electronic machinery and equipment.
SPLA—Sudan People's Liberation Army: the independent South's military force of Sudan and South Sudan is not the end of a conflict but rather the beginning Institute of Peace, June , hampdenlodgethame.org
Metrics details. Cattle raiding, a longstanding practice among pastoralists in South Sudan, was historically governed by cultural authorities and ritual prohibitions. However, after decades of on-and-off integration into armed forces, raiders are now heavily armed, and military-style attacks claim dozens if not hundreds of lives at a time.
Uganda, historically a staunch ally of South Sudan, is now seeking more constructive relations with Sudan too. The current processes — formal and informal, public and private — tackle a wider set of challenges that have historically inhibited good relations between the three countries. South Sudan has large oil reserves, which are exported through Sudan, but its production fell sharply with the eruption of civil war in December While Juba wants a new arrangement with Sudan, such a deal would come with strings attached. Sudan now wants to cooperate too.
Nuer White Army Ugandan insurgents:. Tens of thousands. It was largely a continuation of the First Sudanese Civil War of to
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South Sudan has endured a fifth year of civil war.Reply