preservation of milk and milk products pdf

Preservation of milk and milk products pdf

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Drying of Milk and Milk Products

The Dairy Industry: Process, Monitoring, Standards, and Quality

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Pasteurization

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Drying of Milk and Milk Products

Ref document number : Country of ref document : EP. Kind code of ref document : A1. Country of ref document : JP. Kind code of ref document : A. Ref country code : DE.

The present invention addresses the problem of providing a method for freezing milk or a milk product in an extremely fresh and high quality state allowing long-term preservation. In a freezer provided with a preservation space for preserving milk or a milk product housed therein, a cooling means that cools the preservation space, an electric field generating means that generates an electric field in the preservation space, and an ultrasonic wave emitting means that emits ultrasonic waves to the milk or the milk product housed in the preservation space; the present invention freezes the milk or the milk product by housing the milk or the milk product in the preservation space, generating an electric field by the electric field generating means, emitting ultrasonic waves by the ultrasonic wave generating means, and cooling the milk or the milk product by the cooling means.

However, when the usual freezing method is used for milk or dairy products such as milk, when the milk or dairy products are frozen, the water contained in the milk or dairy products freezes and the ice crystals become coarse. There has been a problem that the quality of milk or dairy products is reduced due to changes in color of milk or dairy products, taste deterioration, separation of moisture and fat, and the like. Further, in ordinary frozen storage, there has been a problem that a bactericidal effect to the extent defined by a ministerial ordinance for example, a ministerial ordinance relating to component specifications of milk and dairy products cannot be obtained.

It may be stopped. It is a scope photo. It is an optical micrograph, d is another optical micrograph of the lower layer of the specimen 1 before stirring, e is an optical micrograph of the specimen 1 after stirring, and f is a specimen after stirring. It is another optical microscope photograph of 1. It is an optical micrograph, d is another optical micrograph of the lower layer of the specimen 2 before stirring, e is an optical micrograph of the specimen 2 after stirring, and f is a specimen after stirring.

It is an optical micrograph, d is another optical micrograph of the lower layer of the specimen 3 before stirring, e is an optical micrograph of the specimen 3 after stirring, and f is a specimen after stirring. Note that the contents of matters not related to the characteristic part of the embodiment may be omitted.

In this example, the freezer 1 is formed in a rectangular parallelepiped box shape, and has a size of about mm in length, mm in width, and about mm in height. The freezer 1 also includes a cooling device, an electric field generator, an ultrasonic generator, a control device, and an insulator to prevent leakage from the power supply of each device. Furthermore, the freezer 1 includes a freezer compartment 2 for storing the object to be frozen in this example, milk or dairy product and a cooling room 3 for cooling the air in the freezer 1.

A unit-shaped rack 4 having a plurality of five levels in this example shelves made of a lattice-like or net-like member capable of ventilating in the vertical direction for placing objects may be installed. The rack 4 allows ventilation in the front-rear and left-right directions, and can be a cart with casters that can be taken in and out of the freezer compartment 2 as a whole.

The freezer compartment 2 is provided with an opening 5 to the outside of the freezer 1, and the opening 5 is opened and closed by a door 6. And a cooler 8b integrated with the fan.

Note that the cooling chamber 3 may include a plurality of cooling chambers. In this example, the cooling chamber 3 includes two cooling chambers, cooling chambers 3a and 3b. The air in the freezer compartment 2 is sequentially sent to the cooling chambers 3a and 3b while being cooled by the cooler 8a. The air sent into the cooling chamber 3 b is cooled by the cooler 8 b and sent out to the freezing chamber 2.

The sent-out air cools the freezer compartment 2 and repeats the cooling circulation by the coolers 8a and 8b again to freeze the object to be frozen in the freezer compartment 2 see the arrows in FIG. And an electrode 10b. In addition, since the rack 4 is comprised from the discharge electrode made from stainless steel, the rack 4 itself becomes the discharge electrode 10a.

Further, the ground electrode 10b is formed or installed on the wall side in the freezer 1. Furthermore, in order to prevent the discharge electrode 10a and the ground electrode 10b from being short-circuited, the rack 4 and the freezer 1 are formed of an insulator. The high voltage generator 9 may be configured to generate a DC voltage.

The ultrasonic generator 12 is provided inside the freezer 1 and is ultrasonically vibrated by the high frequency from the ultrasonic oscillator It consists of a child Note that the ultrasonic generator may include a horn not shown that increases the amplitude of the vibrator.

In this example, The output is w and the frequency is set to 28 kHz. The temperature control panel 14 has a function of controlling setting of the temperature in the freezer 1, switching of the set temperature according to time, measurement of the temperature of the freezer 1 and the object to be frozen, and recording of the measurement values.

The ultrasonic control panel 16 has a function of adjusting the frequency and amplitude of ultrasonic waves. The insulator for preventing electric leakage from the power supply of each device is constituted by the insulator 11 provided between the freezer 1 and the surface where the freezer 1 is grounded.

In addition, the detailed description about the procedure which is not related to this invention may be abbreviate omitted. It can be arbitrarily selected and set according to. Is also included. Specifically, in addition to desserts such as pudding, bavarois, mousse and jelly, yogurt is also targeted. Incidentally, the milk or dairy product frozen by the freezing method of the present example is suitable to have a certain degree of fluidity, but is not limited thereto.

In this case, the high voltage generator 9 in the electric field generator applies a voltage of V to V to the discharge electrode 10a, discharges it from the rack 4 as the discharge electrode 10a to the ground electrode 10b, and generates an electric field in the freezer 1. In addition, the ultrasonic oscillator 12 in the ultrasonic generator irradiates the milk product with ultrasonic waves by radiating ultrasonic waves of, for example, about 28 kHz into the freezer compartment 2 through the ultrasonic vibrator Note that the operation of the electric field generator and the ultrasonic generator may be stopped simultaneously or in different orders.

In addition, the timing of stopping the operation of the electric field generator and the ultrasonic generator can be arbitrarily set according to the type and amount of the dairy product.

For example, even if the dairy product is frozen immediately, It may be when a certain time has passed since freezing. In addition, the time until the dairy product freezes is calculated in advance according to the type and amount of the dairy product, and when the calculated time is reached, the operation of the electric field generator and the ultrasonic generator may be stopped manually or automatically.

In this case, the temperature control panel 14 arbitrarily sets the storage period, the voltage control panel 15 operates or stops the electric field generator as necessary, and the ultrasonic control panel 16 stops or stops the ultrasonic generator as necessary. It may be activated. Therefore, the freezing efficiency at the time of freezing the dairy product which is a freezing object can be improved.

Therefore, when dairy products are frozen, the volume increases due to the water becoming ice. In this case, when ice crystals are formed in the fat globules and cells in the dairy product, it is presumed that the fat globules and cells are destroyed and frozen in that state. As a result, the taste and flavor are impaired, and the quality of the dairy product is degraded.

Therefore, the quality of the object to be frozen is better when quick freezing is performed by passing the maximum ice crystal formation zone in a short time and keeping the ice crystals small compared to slow freezing where the ice is slowly frozen at a relatively high temperature.

It has been known. Therefore, according to one embodiment of the present invention, quick freezing can be performed with improved freezing efficiency, so the time during which the food stays in the maximum ice crystal generation temperature zone during freezing is shortened, and the solid content contained in the dairy product In particular, the destruction of fat globules can be prevented, and even when thawed, a high quality and high quality dairy product can be obtained.

Referring to FIG. It can be seen that ice crystal coarsening during freezing was most suppressed. By the way, the temporary temperature rise peak during freezing in each diagram shows the temperature rise phenomenon in the object due to latent heat of solidification. Therefore, the setting may be stored in advance in the temperature control panel of the freezer 1 as the low power consumption mode. In addition, since the frozen storage period can be set freely, it is possible to respond to the time of delivery of the frozen object in a timely manner.

The results will be described below. Hereinafter, the specimen 1 is milk at the time of refrigeration, that is, milk before freezing, the specimen 2 is milk that is rapidly frozen using the freezer 1 of the present invention, and the specimen 3 is milk that is slowly frozen using a normal freezer. In addition, the component analysis was performed by the water solid content direct method for water, the gel bell method for milk fat, the specific gravity for specific gravity, the titration acidity for acidity, and the alcohol test for alcohol test.

Therefore, it is considered that the components of the specimen 2 and the specimen 3 are substantially the same, and those thawed after freezing can be compared with each other. Specimen 1 is milk at the time of refrigeration, and the result of this appearance observation is used as being almost the same as the state of specimen 2 and specimen 3 before freezing.

In addition, one drop about 0. Moreover, it was observed that the center of the circle was milky white, and the milky white color became lighter from the center toward the outside, and a substantially transparent color was shown at the edge of the circle. Furthermore, no separation was observed between the upper layer and the lower layer of Sample 1. Further, from FIG. Further, it was observed that the specimen 1 had almost no change in the size and density of fat globules and the diffusion state of the fat globules before and after stirring.

For this reason, it can be presumed that the sample 1 is not impaired in flavor or the like, and has a soft taste, that is, high quality and fresh milk. Thereafter, minutes after the start of cooling and after the specimen 2 was frozen, the generation of the electric field by the electric field generator was stopped and the irradiation of ultrasonic waves by the ultrasonic irradiation device was stopped. And thawed. Then, two days after starting thawing in the refrigerator not including the refrigeration start date , 1 drop about 0.

From FIG. Moreover, it was observed from FIG. In addition, it was observed that in the specimen 2 after stirring, fat globules having the same size and density as before the stirring were diffused almost uniformly.

There seems to be almost nothing. That is, it can be estimated that the sample 2 after thawing is high quality and fresh milk like the sample 1. Then, one drop about 0. It is a photograph. In FIG. They are a photograph, an optical micrograph of the lower layer of the specimen 3 before stirring, an optical micrograph of the specimen 3 after stirring, and another optical micrograph of the specimen 3 after stirring. Further, from FIGS. Can be guessed.

It is considered that the number of fat globules is much larger and larger than the specimen 1 and the specimen 2 because it takes a long time to pass through the maximum ice crystal formation zone. This is also clear from the experimental results shown in FIG. Therefore, from the results shown in FIGS. However, the flavor and taste are considered to be much lower than those in which fat globules and cells are not destroyed. In the table below, each specimen is referred to as 5 days after thawing, 10 days after thawing, and 15 days after thawing.

Then, the number of general viable bacteria is examined by standard agar plate culture, and the number of coliforms is examined by BGLB method. It was.

The Dairy Industry: Process, Monitoring, Standards, and Quality

Ref document number : Country of ref document : EP. Kind code of ref document : A1. Country of ref document : JP. Kind code of ref document : A. Ref country code : DE. The present invention addresses the problem of providing a method for freezing milk or a milk product in an extremely fresh and high quality state allowing long-term preservation.

The process is intended to destroy or deactivate organisms and enzymes that contribute to spoilage or risk of disease, including vegetative bacteria , but not bacterial spores. The process was named after the French microbiologist, Louis Pasteur , whose research in the s demonstrated that thermal processing would deactivate unwanted microorganisms in wine. Today, pasteurization is used widely in the dairy industry and other food processing industries to achieve food preservation and food safety. By the year , most liquid products were heat treated in a continuous system where heat can be applied using a plate heat exchanger or the direct or indirect use of hot water and steam. Due to the mild heat, there are minor changes to the nutritional quality and sensory characteristics of the treated foods. The process of heating wine for preservation purposes has been known in China since AD , [5] and was documented in Japan in the diary Tamonin-nikki , written by a series of monks between and

Grade A milk is carefully produced, processed and packaged in order to protect the safety of the consumer. Grade A milk must be pasteurized to be sold by retailers in interstate commerce. Pasteurization destroys disease-causing bacteria and extends the shelf life of milk. However, pasteurized milk can readily spoil and could cause foodborne illness if not properly protected and handled. Maintaining the Safety of Milk: Refrigeration is the single most important factor in maintaining the safety of milk. It is critical that these temperatures be maintained through warehousing, distribution, delivery and storage.

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Regret for the inconvenience: we are taking measures to prevent fraudulent form submissions by extractors and page crawlers. Received: August 31, Published: September 10, A mini review fermentation and preservation: role of Lactic Acid Bacteria.

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Pasteurization

Robinson: Modern Dairy Technology pp Cite as. Milk is extremely perishable, yet for a number of reasons it is desirable to preserve it for later consumption. Today, drying is the most important method of preservation.

By Niamh Burke, Krzysztof A. Ryan and Catherine C. Sampling and analysis occur along the milk processing train: from collection at farm level, to intake at the diary plant, the processing steps, and the end products. Milk has a short shelf life; however, products such as milk powders have allowed a global industry to be developed. Quality control tests are vital to support activities for hygiene and food standards to meet regulatory and customer demands.

Topic outline

Похоже, не один Танкадо умел создавать абсолютно стойкие шифры. Ее мысли прервал шипящий звук открываемой пневматической двери. В Третий узел заглянул Стратмор. - Какие-нибудь новости, Сьюзан? - спросил Стратмор и тут же замолчал, увидав Грега Хейла.  - Добрый вечер, мистер Хейл.  - Он нахмурился, глаза его сузились.

Food Processing & Technology

Беккер почувствовал, как кровь отхлынула от его лица. - Куда.

3 comments

  • Audric L. 17.05.2021 at 06:26

    Formalin is the only legally permitted preservative for milk and milk products, in India, meant for analytical purposes. Scientific reports suggest that.

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  • InalГ©n T. 21.05.2021 at 12:33

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