File Name: well being productivity and happiness at work .zip
This book could also be a starting point for many researches in this field. Skip to main content Skip to table of contents.
This book could also be a starting point for many researches in this field. Skip to main content Skip to table of contents. Advertisement Hide.
Despite a large body of positive psychological research into the relationship between happiness and productivity ,    happiness at work has traditionally been seen as a potential by-product of positive outcomes at work, rather than a pathway to business success. Happiness in the workplace is usually dependent on the work environment. During the past two decades, maintaining a level of happiness at work has become more significant and relevant due to the intensification of work caused by economic uncertainty and increase in competition.
Happiness is not fundamentally rooted in obtaining sensual pleasures and money, but those factors can influence the well-being of an individual at the workplace. Ryan and Deci offer a definition for happiness in two views: happiness as being hedonic, accompanied with enjoyable feelings and desirable judgements, and happiness as being eudemonic, which involves doing virtuous, moral and meaningful things.
Organisational culture represents the internal work environment created for operating an organisation. It can also represent how employees are treated by their bosses and peers. An effective organisation should have a culture that takes into account employee's happiness and encourages employee satisfaction. There are many reasons that can contribute to happiness at work. However, when individuals are asked with regards to why they work, money is one of the most common answers  as it provides people with sustenance, security and privilege.
To a large extent, people work to live, and the pecuniary aspect of the work is what sustains the living. Locke, Feren, McCaleb Shaw and Denny argued that no other incentive or motivational technique comes even close to money with respect to its instrumental value. The income-happiness relationship in life can also be applied in organisational psychology.
Some studies have found positively significant relationships between salary level and job satisfaction. However, others don't believe that salary, in itself, is a very strong factor in job satisfaction. Their research shows that the intrinsic relationship between job and salary is complex. In their research, they analysed the combined impact of many existing studies to produce a much larger and statistically powerful analysis.
By looking at 86 previous studies, they concluded that while it is true to say that money is a driver of employee's happiness, the produced effect is transitory. Judge and his colleagues have reminded us that money may not necessarily make employees happy.
Job security is an important factor to determine whether employees feel happiness at work. The option for moving or shifting to alternative roles motivates the employee's participation in the workplace  meaning if an employee can see the future potential for a promotion, motivation levels will increase.
By contrast, if an organisation does not provide any potential for higher status position in the future, the employee's effectiveness in work will decrease. In addition, the employee may consider whether or not the position would be offered to them in the future. On the other hand, not all of the opportunities for transferring into another activity are aimed to obtain the upward movement. In some cases, they are aimed to prevent the skills obsolescence, provides more future career possibility, as well as directly increasing the skill development.
Job autonomy may be defined as the condition of being self-governing or free from excessive external control in the workplace environment. The German philosopher Immanuel Kant believed that autonomy is important to human beings because it is the foundation of human dignity and the source of all morality.
Self-determination theory proposes that 'higher behavioural effectiveness, greater volitional persistence, enhanced subjective well-being, and better assimilation of the individual within his or her social group' result when individuals act from motivations that emanate from the inner self intrinsic motivation rather than from sources of external regulation.
Thus, health and well-being as well as effective performance in social settings are closely related to the experience of autonomy. Hackman and Oldham developed the Job Characteristics Model, a framework that focused attention on autonomy and four other key factors involved in designing enriched work.
Work designed to be complex and challenging characterized by high levels of autonomy, skill variety, identity, significance, and feedback was theorized to promote high intrinsic motivation, job satisfaction, and overall work performance. It is possible to infer from this line of research that the experience of autonomy at work has positive consequences ranging from higher job performance to job satisfaction and enhanced general well-being, which are both related to the concept of happiness at work.
Work—life balance is a state of equilibrium, characterised by a high level of satisfaction, functionality, and effectiveness while successfully performing several tasks simultaneously. Scholars and popular press articles have started promoting the importance of maintaining a work—life balance beginning in the early s and have been increasing ever since.
The existence of cell phones and other internet based devices enables access to work related issues in non- working periods, thus, adding more hours and work load. A decrease in the time allocated to non- work related activities and working nonstandard shifts has been proven to have significant negative effects on family and personal life.
The immediate effect is a decrease in general well- being as the individual is unable to properly allocate the appropriate amount of time necessary to maintain a balance between the two spheres. Therefore, extensive research has been done on properly managing time as a main strategy of managing stress. Some of the physiological effects of stress include cognitive problems forgetfulness, lack of creativity, inefficient decision making , emotional reactions mood swings, irritability, depression, lack of motivation , behavioural issues withdrawal from relationships and social situations, neglecting responsibilities, abuse of drugs and alcohol and physical symptoms tiredness, aches and pain, loss of libido.
The condition in which work performance is negatively affected by a high level of stress is termed 'burnout', in which the employee experiences a significant reduction in motivation. According to Vroom's Expectancy Theory , when the outcomes of work performance are offset by the negative impacts on the individual's general well-being, or, are not valued enough by the employee, levels of motivation are low.
Psychologists have suggested that when workers have control over their work schedule, they are more capable of balancing work and non- work related activities.
The difficulty of distinguishing and balancing between those spheres was defined by sociologist Arlie Russell Hochschild as Time Bind. Therefore, work—life balance policies are created by many businesses and are largely implemented and dealt by line managers and supervisors, rather than at the organizational level  as the employee's well-being can be more carefully observed and monitored.
According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs , feeling a sense of belonging to groups is a significant motivation for human beings. Co-workers are an important social group and relationships with them can be a source of pleasure.
Herzberg's Two-Factor theory indicates that co-workers relationship belongs to hygiene needs, which are related to environmental elements. When environmental elements are met, satisfaction will be achieved. Employees tend to be happier and more hardworking when they are in good working environment, for instance, being happy to work in a good working relationship.
Group relationship is important and has effects on employees' absenteeism and turnover rate. Cohesive groups increase job satisfactions. Mann and Baumgartel state that the sense of group belongingness, group pride, group solidarity or group spirit relates inversely to the absenteeism rate.
Among the target groups, group with high cohesiveness tend to have low absenteeism rate while group with low cohesiveness tend to have higher absenteeism rate. Seashore investigated work groups in a heavy-machinery-manufacturing company. His findings suggest that Group cohesiveness helps employees solve their work-related pressure.
Seashore define cohesiveness as '1 members perceive themselves to be a part of a group 2 members prefer to remain in the group rather than to leave, and 3 perceive their group to be better than other groups with respect to the way the men get along together, the way they help each other out, and the way they stick together'.
Among the target group, the less cohesive the group, the more likely its employees are to feel nervous and jumpy. Different communication ways in groups contribute to different employees satisfaction. For example, the chain structure results in low satisfaction while the circle structure results in high satisfaction. In relations to the work place, successful leadership will structure and develop relationships amongst employees and consequently, employees will empower each other.
Kurt Lewin argued that there are 3 main styles of leaderships: . Management plays an important role in an employee's job satisfaction and happiness.
Feelings, including happiness, are often hidden by employees and should be identified  for effective communication in the workplace.
Ineffective communication at work is not uncommon, as leaders tend to focus on their own matters and give less attention to employees at a lower rank. Employees, on the other hand, tend to be reluctant to talk about their own problem and assume leaders can figure out the problem. As a result, both leaders and employees can cause repetitive misunderstandings. Research shows that employees who are happiest at work are considered to be the most efficient and display the highest levels of performance.
For instance, the iOpener Institute found that a happy worker is a high-performing one. Furthermore, happier employees display a higher level of loyalty, as they tend to stay for far longer periods in their organizations.
Happiness at work is the feeling that employee really enjoy what they do and they are proud of themselves, they enjoy people being around, thus they have better performance. Employees' behaviour can be influenced by happiness or unhappiness. People would like to participate in work when they feel happiness, or in the converse, absenteeism might occur. Although employee absenteeism is usually associated with the job-related well-being or simply whether the employee feels happiness during the work, other factors are also important.
Firstly, the health constraints such as being ill would force the employee absence from the work. Secondly, social and families pressure can also influence the employee's decision to participate in the work. Employee turnover can be considered as another result derived from employee happiness. In particular, it is more likely that individual employees are able to deal with stress and passive feelings when they are in good mood.
What is more, Avey and his colleagues use a concept called psychological capital to link employee satisfaction with work related outcomes, especially turnover intention and actual turnover.
For example, they omitted an important factor, which was emotional stability. Although there are a few surveys used to measure the happiness or well-being level of people in different countries such as the World Happiness Report , the Happy Planet Index and the OECD Better Life Index , there are no surveys that measure happiness in the specific context of the workplace.
There are, however, surveys created to assess the job satisfaction level of employees. Even though job satisfaction is a different concept, it is positively correlated to happiness and subjective well-being. The facets include pay and pay raises, promotion opportunities, relationship with the immediate supervisor, fringe benefits, rewards given for good performance, rules and procedures, relationship with coworkers, type of work performed and communication within the organization.
The scale contains thirty-six items and uses a summated rating scale format. The JSS can provide ten scores. Each of the nine subscales produce a separate score and the total of all items produces a total score. The entire scale contains seventy-two items with either nine or eighteen items per subscale.
Each item is an evaluative adjective or short phrase that is descriptive of the job. The individual has to respond "yes", "uncertain" or "no" for each item. The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire MSQ has two versions, a one hundred item long version and a twenty item short form.
It covers twenty facets including activity, independence, variety, social status, supervision human relations , supervision technical , moral values, security, social service, authority, ability utilization, company policies and practices, compensation, advancement, responsibility, creativity, working conditions, coworkers, recognition and achievement. The long form contains five items per facet, while the short one contains only one. On the other hand, social workers, nurses, social workers, medical doctors, and psychiatrists abuse substances and incur mental ill-health at among the highest rates of any occupation.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Organisational culture. Main article: Job security. Main article: Job control workplace. Main article: Work—life balance. Main article: Job performance.
Despite a large body of positive psychological research into the relationship between happiness and productivity ,    happiness at work has traditionally been seen as a potential by-product of positive outcomes at work, rather than a pathway to business success. Happiness in the workplace is usually dependent on the work environment. During the past two decades, maintaining a level of happiness at work has become more significant and relevant due to the intensification of work caused by economic uncertainty and increase in competition. Happiness is not fundamentally rooted in obtaining sensual pleasures and money, but those factors can influence the well-being of an individual at the workplace. Ryan and Deci offer a definition for happiness in two views: happiness as being hedonic, accompanied with enjoyable feelings and desirable judgements, and happiness as being eudemonic, which involves doing virtuous, moral and meaningful things. Organisational culture represents the internal work environment created for operating an organisation. It can also represent how employees are treated by their bosses and peers.
It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. Authors: Robertson , Ivan, Cooper , Cary. High levels of well-being at work is good for the employee and the organization. It means lower sickness-absence levels, better retention and more satisfied customers.
Too many companies bet on having a cut-throat, high-pressure, take-no-prisoners culture to drive their financial success. But a large and growing body of research on positive organizational psychology demonstrates that not only is a cut-throat environment harmful to productivity over time, but that a positive environment will lead to dramatic benefits for employers, employees, and the bottom line. Workplace stress has been linked to health problems ranging from metabolic syndrome to cardiovascular disease and mortality.
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