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If you are a computer engineer and you are looking to make a career in digital logic designing then we are here to guide you with all the information you require, to build a successful career for yourself.
Digital logic design job involves developing computer hardware parts such as hardware processors and circuit boards. As a digital logic designer you can work on developing mobile phones, computers and other personal electronic devices. Proper training in writing functions, building algorithms and binary conversions is important to become a computer hardware designer.
If you already have a specialized training in these subjects then wisdomjobs can provide you a list of various job opportunities in reputed companies around the world. We also train you for your job interview by providing you a set of digital logic design job interview questions and answers which will simplify your task and give the desired results. Question 1. Answer : Set up time is the amount of time before the clock edge that the input signal needs to be stable to guarantee it is accepted properly on the clock edge.
Hold time is the amount of time after the clock edge that same input signal has to be held before changing it to make sure it is sensed properly at the clock edge. This whole process is known as metastability. Question 2. Answer : In circuit design, clock skew is a phenomenon in synchronous circuits in which the clock signal sent from the clock circuit arrives at different components at different times.
This is typically due to two causes. The first is a material flaw, which causes a signal to travel faster or slower than expected.
Clock skew can cause harm in two ways. Suppose that a logic path travels through combinational logic from a source flipflop to a destination flipflop. If the destination flipflop receives the clock tick later than the source flipflop, and if the logic path delay is short enough, then the data signal might arrive at the destination flipflop before the clock tick, destroying there the previous data that should have been clocked through.
This is called a hold violation because the previous data is not held long enough at the destination flipflop to be properly clocked through. If the destination flipflop receives the clock tick earlier than the source flipflop, then the data signal has that much less time to reach the destination flipflop before the next clock tick.
If it fails to do so, a setup violation occurs, socalled because the new data was not set up and stable before the next clock tick arrived. A hold violation is more serious than a setup violation because it cannot be fixed by increasing the clock period. Clock skew, if done right, can also benefit a circuit. The optimal set of clock delays is determined by a linear program, in which a setup and a hold constraint appears for each logic path.
In this linear program, zero clock skew is merely a feasible point. Clock skew can be minimized by proper routing of clock signal clock distribution tree or putting variable delay buffer so that all clock inputs arrive at the same time. Question 4. What Is Glitch? What Causes It explain With Waveform? How To Overcome It? Answer : The following figure shows a synchronous alternative to the gated clock using a data path.
The flipflop is clocked at every clock cycle and the data path is controlled by an enable. When the enable is Low, the multiplexer feeds the output of the register back on itself. When the enable is High, new data is fed to the flipflop and the register changes its state.
Question 5. Answer : Tie one of xor gates input to 1 it will act as inverter. Tie one of xor gates input to 0 it will act as buffer. Question 6. Answer : The main difference between latch and FF is that latches are level sensitive while FF are edge sensitive. They both require the use of clock signal and are used in sequential logic. For a latch, the output tracks the input when the clock signal is high, so as long as the clock is logic 1, the output can change if the input also changes.
Question 7. Difference Between Heap And Stack? Think of the Stack as a series of boxes stacked one on top of the next. The Heap is similar except that its purpose is to hold information not keep track of execution most of the time so anything in our Heap can be accessed at any time.
With the Heap, there are no constraints as to what can be accessed like in the stack. The Heap is like the heap of clean laundry on our bed that we have not taken the time to put away yet — we can grab what we need quickly. The Stack is like the stack of shoe boxes in the closet where we have to take off the top one to get to the one underneath it. Question 8. Answer : Mealy and Moore models are the basic models of state machines.
A state machine which uses only Entry Actions, so that its output depends on the state, is called a Moore model. A state machine which uses only Input Actions, so that the output depends on the state and also on inputs, is called a Mealy model. The models selected will influence a design but there are no general indications as to which model is better. Adv and Disadv. In Mealy as the output variable is a function both input and state, changes of state of the state variables will be delayed with respect to changes of signal level in the input variables, there are possibilities of glitches appearing in the output variables.
Moore overcomes glitches as output dependent on only states and not the input signal level. All of the concepts can be applied to Mooremodel state machines because any Moore state machine can be implemented as a Mealy state machine, although the converse is not true.
The outputs are held until you go to some other state Mealy machine:. Mealy machines give you outputs instantly, that is immediately upon receiving input, but the output is not held after that clock cycle. Question 9. Answer : Common classifications used to describe the state encoding of an FSM are Binary or highly encoded and One hot. A binaryencoded FSM design only requires as many flipflops as are needed to uniquely encode the number of states in the state machine.
The actual number of flipflops required is equal to the ceiling of the logbase2 of the number of states in the FSM. For a state machine with states, a binary FSM only requires 4 flipflops while a onehot FSM requires a flipflop for each state in the design FPGA vendors frequently recommend using a onehot state encoding style because flipflops are plentiful in an FPGA and the combinational logic required to implement a onehot FSM design is typically smaller than most binary encoding styles.
Question It uses a multiplex scheme to save input pins. Answer : They are used to introduce small delays They are used to eliminate cross talk caused due to inter electrode capacitance due to close routing. They are used to support high fanout,eg:bufg. Answer : This is the basic question that many interviewers ask. What Is A Multiplexer?
Answer : A multiplexer is a combinational circuit which selects one of many input signals and directs to the only output. What Is A Ring Counter? Answer : A ring counter is a type of counter composed of a circular shift register. The output of the last shift register is fed to the input of the first register. For example, in a 4-register counter, with initial register values of , the repeating pattern is: , , , , , so on.
Answer : Synchronous reset logic will synthesize to smaller flip-flops, particularly if the reset is gated with the logic generating the d-input. But in such a case, the combinational logic gate count grows, so the overall gate count savings may not be that significant. The clock works as a filter for small reset glitches; however, if these glitches occur near the active clock edge, the Flip-flop could go metastable. In some designs, the reset must be generated by a set of internal conditions.
A synchronous reset is recommended for these types of designs because it will filter the logic equation glitches between clock. Problem with synchronous resets is that the synthesis tool cannot easily distinguish the reset signal from any other data signal. Synchronous resets may need a pulse stretcher to guarantee a reset pulse width wide enough to ensure reset is present during an active edge of the clock, if you have a gated clock to save power, the clock may be disabled coincident with the assertion of reset.
Only an asynchronous reset will work in this situation, as the reset might be removed prior to the resumption of the clock. Designs that are pushing the limit for data path timing, can not afford to have added gates and additional net delays in the data path due to logic inserted to handle synchronous resets. Asynchronous reset: The major problem with asynchronous resets is the reset release, also called reset removal. Using an asynchronous reset, the designer is guaranteed not to have the reset added to the data path.
Another advantage favoring asynchronous resets is that the circuit can be reset with or without a clock present. Ensure that the release of the reset can occur within one clock period else if the release of the reset occurred on or near a clock edge then flip-flops may go into metastable state.
What Is A Johnson Counter? Answer : Johnson counter connects the complement of the output of the last shift register to its input and circulates a stream of ones followed by zeros around the ring. For example, in a 4-register counter, the repeating pattern is: , , , , , , , , so on. Answer : Flip-flops are edge-sensitive devices where as latches are level sensitive devices. Flip-flops are immune to glitches where are latches are sensitive to glitches. Latches require less number of gates and hence less power than flip-flops.
Latches are faster than flip-flops. Answer : Mealy FSM uses only input actions, i. The use of a Mealy FSM leads often to a reduction of the number of states. Moore FSM uses only entry actions, i. The advantage of the Moore model is a simplification of the behavior. Explain Them?
If you are a computer engineer and you are looking to make a career in digital logic designing then we are here to guide you with all the information you require, to build a successful career for yourself. Digital logic design job involves developing computer hardware parts such as hardware processors and circuit boards. As a digital logic designer you can work on developing mobile phones, computers and other personal electronic devices. Proper training in writing functions, building algorithms and binary conversions is important to become a computer hardware designer. If you already have a specialized training in these subjects then wisdomjobs can provide you a list of various job opportunities in reputed companies around the world. We also train you for your job interview by providing you a set of digital logic design job interview questions and answers which will simplify your task and give the desired results.
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Digital Design Interview Questions - All in 1. January 20, A multiplexer is a combinational circuit which selects one of many input signals and directs to the only output. A ring counter is a type of counter composed of a circular shift register. The output of the last shift register is fed to the input of the first register. For example, in a 4-register counter, with initial register values of , the repeating pattern is: , , , , , so on.
On the surface, a graphic design job interview should be easy. Give a brief summary of your professional persona. Include who you are, any education or experience you might have, and maybe a few snippets of information on your career thus far. You want to be friendly and open, with a focus on your accomplishments as a designer. Many people wait until the end of the job interview for this if they have a business card at all , but it makes a better first impression if you offer your card during introductions.
A list of top frequently asked Digital Electronics Interview Questions and answers are given below. The difference between latches and Flip-flop is that the latches are level triggered and flip-flops are edge triggered. In latches level triggered means that the output of the latches changes as we change the input and edge triggered means that control signal only changes its state when goes from low to high or high to low. The system which has a base 2 is known as the binary system and it consists of only two digits 0 and 1.
In Boolean algebra, the true state is denoted by the number one, referred as logic one or logic high. While, the false state is represented by the number zero, called logic zero or logic low. And in the digital electronic, the logic high is denoted by the presence of a voltage potential. Binary number consists of either 0 or 1, in simple words number 1 represents the ON state and number 0 represents OFF state. These binary numbers can combine billion of machines into one machines or circuit and operate those machines by performing arithmetic calculations and sorting operations.
Set up time is the amount of time before the clock edge that the input signal needs to be stable to guarantee it is accepted properly on the clock edge.
Can you also provide answers to the interview questions If inverted output of D flip-flop is connected to its input how the flip-flop behaves? I have read your blog and I gathered some needful information from your blog. Keep update your blog. Awaiting for your next update. Your Comments Digital design Interview Questions.
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Digital design interview questions & answers. · 1) Explain about setup time and hold time, what will happen if there is setup time and hold tine violation, how to.Reply
Ans: A multiplexer is a combinational circuit which selects one of many input signals and directs to the only output.Reply