architectural illustration inside and out pdf

Architectural illustration inside and out pdf

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Architectural illustration inside and out

The best architects of all time, ranked

Beatriz Colomina

The role of criticism is not to split, but rather to bring matters together in an assembly. I propose that the critical call of architecture is often hidden in plain sight in works that camouflage themselves under seemingly disengaged positions, and which, upon closer inspection, act as resources of architectural imagination. I propose that the critical call of architecture is often hidden in plain sight in works that camouflage themselves under seemingly disengaged positions, and which, upon closer inspection, act as resources for architectural imagination.

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Architectural illustration inside and out

Authored by Mollie Claypool. Today within architecture, digital tools — from machine learning to fabrication technologies, from artificial intelligence to Big Data — are becoming more and more ubiquitous and pervasive, and quickly. Increased interest in the impact these technologies are having, and will have, in our daily lives has rapidly expanded the use of these tools in architecture schools, small, independent firms and international, corporate practices.

From augmented reality for construction to 3D printing architectural models to using artificial intelligence within the design process, it is increasingly rare that an architectural project does not use some kind of digital tool either for design or fabrication. This is also the case throughout how we experience the built environment. The digital is everywhere; from the infrastructure we use to navigate the world to the objects we use to communicate.

This fundamental shift is not lost on the architecture industry. In this context, the increasing proliferation and promise of digital technologies are huge opportunities to shift our shared understandings of the world from an architectural perspective.

How can the digital aid in the creation of new spatial models that are more equitable or inclusive? How have digital design and digital fabrication innovated not only designing and making, but also how we experience the built environment? Are digital tools mere methods that can solve technical problems, or can we extrapolate their potential to change the way we design, build and inhabit our world for a more sustainable future? These are just a few of the questions guiding the creation of this report.

Claypool wrote the entire piece, whereas Pentagram designed the physical version — as well as the data visualisation included within the pages. In the meantime, though, dig into the report below — and join us to consider how looking towards the past may help us anticipate the future. This report aims to describe the ways in which innovations in digital tools for design and fabrication in architecture have contributed to the way that people experience the built environment today.

It does this by looking at some of the key developments in digital thinking within this industry — ranging from the late 19th century until the present day, with continuous emphasis on parametric design.

Broadly, parametric design can be defined as work that is driven by parameters — where certain sets of rules inform the architectural or design output. It may be surprising that the digital can be traced back so far in history; in fact, it has been argued by some architecture historians to have begun in the Renaissance!

The report uses the voice of an architect trained in the US — now a theorist-historian based in the UK — to first look backwards in order to look forward into the future.

It is widely recognised that in the late 20th century, the discipline of architecture foregrounded the use of digital tools and techniques ahead of every other design discipline. Throughout the more historical-facing part of the report, the included architects and thinkers are references who today are continually cited by those working within the various areas of digital design and fabrication in architectural research. They are essential inclusions as they are some of the most valuable references for understanding the state of the digital in design today.

This is by no means an exhaustive list of people, projects or innovations. It is important to note that the history of architecture and design, and therefore the canon from which it draws, is ever-evolving. Digital tools have given architects and designers great opportunities to communicate their work to large, international audiences. Sharing new techniques and utilising innovations has enabled the proliferation of design techniques and processes to much wider groups of people.

In contrast, previously this knowledge would have remained available to certain academies or practices leading at the helm of these developments. As a result, there are a diverse number of voices emerging today about how this history should be written from around the world.

As the report moves from the 19th century towards today, it will aim to reflect this shifting landscape. Where possible, the report tries to mitigate the underlying biases of the discipline. There are a few explanations for this, most of which are rooted in how patriarchal capitalism favours some and excludes others.

For example, much like many disciplines that require long periods of study before becoming a registered architect, architecture requires long hours — which, for years, has been and is a significant barrier for some women with children. In addition, the cost of studying and qualifying also prevents many from underprivileged demographics from accessing architectural education. The relatively low pay given the workload and accrued debt prevents many from wanting to continue on in this career post-education.

But, much like in art history, the architecture most documented and praised for its influence reflects the patriarchal context it comes from. As such, it is male work that is the most canonised and easiest to track down on a historical basis. However, now is the time to develop discourse that actively rebutts this patriarchal tradition — which is what we have tried to do throughout this report. In addition, we can recommend further reading around these topics; a good place to start is The Architecture Lobby.

Our concerns about the future of architecture in an age of digitisation have direct links to how we understand our relationship to nature. To root that understanding, it makes sense to look backwards to one of the major shifts in post-Enlightenment thinking: from vitalism to empiricism in science in the 19th century. This shift was signified by scientific and technological progress that led to greater understanding of the behaviours and mechanisms underlying human, animal and plant life.

As for Thompson, his work On Growth and Form emphasised that physical and mechanical factors — also known as structuralism — are crucial aspects to consider if we want to understand the behaviour and form of all species. Here and in other projects of the era, architecture could be understood as an organism in harmony with its environment, from its morphology to its function.

This is a general prerequisite for tapping the full potential of digital technologies in architectural design and construction. Insight into the principles of nature, and the mathematics behind these principles, hugely influenced architects in the early to midth century.

While they certainly did not have access to the design technologies of today, they were able to utilise morphogenetic thinking in an analogue way with whatever means they had at the time. The physical model was a tool for him to compute parts of the building over many years, creating a deep understanding of the structural and spatial relationships at play. This became especially apparent as computational tools further developed to incorporate physics engines — software that can help simulate physical systems — to model real-world structural behaviour, like the effects of gravity, load and weight on an object.

Others such as German architect and engineer Frei Otto further developed this method of analogue computation using models. A leading figure in the computation of structures from nature including soap bubbles and spider webs, Otto used detailed physical models to analyse, understand, document and compute how these structures were formed and performed. For the Munich Olympic Stadium , he built a complex physical model: wire, string and precise imaging cameras were pointed at the model to compute the behaviour of the tensile roof structure of the stadium.

From geodesic domes to inventions in modular deployable housing, Fuller advocated that through technological innovation, humans could do more with less and use resources more efficiently. This, in turn, would lead to a more sustainable and democratic future. Innovations in science go hand in hand with innovations in technology. In the middle of the 20th century, rapid technological advancement spurned by the two world wars became a mechanism for developing a greater understanding of how humans and machines are controlled by, and can communicate with, one another.

Hugely influential in architecture and design throughout the latter half of the 20th century until today, cybernetics sets out a theory that all behaviour, including that of humans and machines, is part of a system of feedback loops of inputs and outputs. In any given system, these inputs and outputs continuously merge together to extend the capacity of the human or machine.

Some of the concepts of cybernetics dealt with communication and machine cognition. This thinking originates in the work of Ada Lovelace, an English mathematician and writer regarded as one of the first computer scientists for her work with mathematician Charles Babbage. In the s, his work in cellular automata — discrete, abstract computational systems that evolve through simple steps — explored concepts of self-replicating entities that can perceive and react to their immediate surroundings based on simple sets of rules.

These innovations — the neural network and the logics behind self-replication — are at the core of cybernetic architecture and adaptive architectural systems which use information processing, machine learning and artificial intelligence.

After all, cybernetics inspired architects and designers to take these ideas and use them to understand the relationship between humans and machines. They often realised these ideas by designing utopian spaces that were informed by continuous feedback from both technology and people during the s and s. In particular, these spaces served as architectural investigations that explored how architecture could reflect society.

Among architects working under this mentality, the most well-known is Cedric Price, one of the most visionary British architects of the 20th century. His work has inspired a later generation of internationally recognised architects including Archigram, Richard Rogers, Rem Koolhaas and many others. His sketch includes hanging rooms and moving floors, walls, ceilings and walkways as well as a temperature sensitive control system to create different climates and disperse fog and warm air.

In this space, people are free to wander, gaze at artworks and installations and discover the collection in the building — all without being directed to a specific pathway by the architecture itself. The ways in which a person can move through the Centre are dictated by their own wants, desires, or needs. In the book The Architecture Machine , Nicholas Negroponte and his research group at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT envisioned the future dynamic between humans and machines as a dialogue where the machine can initially learn from the human.

This research set the basis for much of the work today that looks at how robotic machines can be designed to be intelligent and adapt to different conditions or needs. In a similar line of thought, the work of Julia and John Frazer — prominent figures at the Architectural Association AA School of Architecture in the s and s — uses generative and evolutionary algorithms as a new model for a design process.

In terms of the architectural process, this enables more flexibility: instead of a single one-off option that must be used in a design, multiple design options can be adjusted according to the needs of a project.

The economic crises and recessions of the mids and s drove architects to recalibrate the way they practiced. Many architects, particularly ones embedded in the relative safety of academia, began to investigate other forms of more experimental practice and look to other industries for inspiration.

The shipbuilding, aeronautical and automobile industries had been using computer-aided design CAD software for several decades to design complex forms. As complex forms designed with digital tools became more pervasive in the architecture and design industry over the late s and early s, computational tools became more essential to not only the design process but also the production of drawings. These tools enabled architects to rationalise form — to make it more efficient, but also to assist with producing information for the construction process.

The American architect Peter Eisenman was an important figure in the early years of digital tools in architecture. The design for the Biocenter project was inspired by biological processes and used four interlocking geometric figures with colour coding to symbolise pairs of DNA codes and their process of replication, transcription and translation. This allowed for repetitive, differentiated and adaptive form-making in a way that had not been seen before in architectural design.

Instead, it explores the notion of an infinite iteration of form, generated by shared regulating principles — parameters that are embedded in spline curves. But not identical: every part did not need to be modular or identical in each instance.

It was the idea of designing something that could unfold in its specificity without changing its structure or the underlying code. Lynn explored mass customisation to produce unique iterations of the house; at the same time, he experimented with CNC manufacturing to realise each of the different iterations of the house using the same methods. With this kind of model for architecture, people could customise their house according to their needs while remaining within a specific framework for design production.

Two decades later, there is still little as robust as this approach in either design or manufacturing in any industry. Then, a physical model is again produced from the 3D model and modified with analogue, intuitive model making. After this process, the design is captured again using a 3D scanner to further inform the digital model, and continues to be worked on using analogue and digital techniques over many years.

To enable his designs to be realised with minimal alteration to his intent and to facilitate the production stages of building design, Gehry and his team created an interface for CATIA. CATIA is a modelling software originally created for aircraft industry. The software generated data that could be sent directly to manufacturers without adjusting for any specific tolerances that the fabrication machines may have.

BIM is software that manages the different inputs of various stakeholders in a design process. Digital Project was used to design and model the building that brought Gehry into view of the wider public: the Guggenheim Bilbao , completed in Largely used in-house, Gehry Technologies was later acquired by Trimble in , a company that owns many software companies; as a result, Digital Project was made available to the public for purchase and download in order to model and realise the complex, three-dimensional, hand-made maquettes that he used to design his iconic buildings and products.

The period of the late s and early s is marked by the realisation of the concepts explored in the previous decades at an architectural scale. The boom in the financial market meant that a huge amount of money was poured into architecture. Later, this would result in another recession, the one of , but at the time, it was extremely exciting. Architects who had otherwise only explored their work in the form of drawings and animations, or at the scale of installations or small buildings if they were lucky , could now compete for large-scale projects.

The best architects of all time, ranked

Throughout history, architecture has stood as a representation of society, reflecting the values, successes, and eventual downfall of civilizations over time. From the monumental structures to the residences and buildings that make up the fabric of a city, we can learn a lot about who the people were who inhabited them long before our time. It stands as a representation of how we see ourselves, as well as how we see the world. While the concept of shelter is a fairly simple thing, the style of buildings was originally shaped by the climate of a particular location, what materials were readily available, as well as the values of the society building them. As the world became more and more connected, the styles evolved, but even in modern construction, there is still an importance in honoring the cultural nuances in the built environment. Some are modified to take on different functions, while others are demolished, deemed to be beyond repair. Architecture not only affects society on a high level but also on a more personal level, it can have a profound impact on its occupants.

Stage design is an articulated system of projective processes, whose aim is to create a purely visual emotion for the spectators when the curtain rises, disclosing that portion of space that is behind the actors. Setting up a scene is a very similar process to architectural planning, made of plans, sections and executive details of each element, in order to create a physical space but having the sole purpose of giving back a global image of itself, exactly coincident with the planned sketch. However, this design complexity is rarely highlighted by scholars, who end up commenting that the sketch is just like a perspective painted image, without reading the need for transposition into the physical space of the stage, that instead affects many compositional choices and exceptions, hidden in the apparent harmony of the general overall picture. Stage design is an articulated system of projective processes, whose aim is to create a purely visual emotion when the grand drape rises, disclosing the space behind the actors, framed by the proscenium , which separates the illusory space on the stage from the real one in the auditorium. The starting point and the perfect synthesis of the design complexity is the sketch, a painted perspective image which is a full design concept that simulates the vision of spectators; it is a single meaningful image that harmoniously synthesizes the measured alchemy of illusory tricks adopted. The space depth, the architectural massing, as well as the luminous effects, are directly designed in perspective in order to evaluate the illusory effect which the scene will offer to the viewer; in geometric terms, this appealing painted and, thus, two-dimensional image, is ideally placed along a liminal plane, a virtual separation between the reality in the auditorium and the fiction beyond the grand drape.

Written in English. See more ideas about Architecture design, Architecture and Architecture graphicsK pins. Architectural Illustration Inside and Out; Techniques for Architects, Designers, and Renderers by Albert Lorenz, Leonard Lizak and a great selection of related books, art and collectibles available now at Architectural illustration inside and out. Architectural Detailing is the go-to text for learning to design details that perform well and look great. Systematically laying out the principles of quality architectural detailing in a highly visual format, this book demonstrates the proper integration of appropriate detailing into ambitious designs, not just safe by: 6. Award-winning illustrations.

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Beatriz Colomina

A hand-drawn guide to architectural styles throughout history Architectural Styles is an incomparable guide to architectural styles across the centuries and around the world. Modeled after an architect's plein air sketchbook, the volume features hundreds of detailed drawings by esteemed architectural illustrator Robbie Polley alongside incisive and informative descriptions. It covers a host of historical and contemporary architectural styles, from ancient and classical to Pre-Columbian, Romanesque, Renaissance, Palladian, art nouveau, Brutalist, and biomorphic. It describes the histories and characteristics of the building traditions of each era and region of the world, and looks at key architectural elements such as buttresses, spandrels, curtain walls, and oculi.

X-Ray Architecture explores the enormous impact of medical discourse and imaging technologies on the formation, representation and reception of twentieth-century architecture. It challenges the normal understanding of modern architecture by proposing that it was shaped by the dominant medical obsession of its time: tuberculosis and its primary diagnostic tool, the X-ray. Modern architecture and the X-ray were born around the same time and evolved in parallel. While the X-ray exposed the inside of the body to the public eye, the modern building unveiled its interior, dramatically inverting the relationship between private and public.

In compiling this list, we sought out titles from different backgrounds with the aim of revealing divergent cultural contexts. From essays to monographs, urban theory to graphic novels, each of the following either engage directly with or flirt on the edges of architecture. The books on this list were chosen by our editors, and are categorized loosely by type. Every design challenge represents a problem to be solved. In this book, Christopher Alexander proposes a cataloging of the types of problems or design challenges and analyzes what lies behind each situation, describing it in its essence and proposing a standard solution Recommended by Eduardo Souza.

Looking for more top artists?

 Плевал я на Стратмора! - закричал Чатрукьян, и его слова громким эхом разнеслись по шифровалке. - Мистер Чатрукьян? - послышался сверху звучный возглас. Все трое замерли. Над ними, опираясь на перила площадки перед своим кабинетом, стоял Стратмор. Какое-то время в здании слышался только неровный гул расположенных далеко внизу генераторов. Сьюзан отчаянно пыталась встретиться взглядом со Стратмором.

The Digital in Architecture: Then, Now and in the Future

 А мне без разницы.  - Панк не понимал, к чему клонит Беккер.


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