File Name: time and motion study on road construction techniques file.zip
By: Kendall Jones on April 16th, Construction Technology. This article was originally published on December 5, Last updated: April 16, What do a pickup truck, a nail gun, a portable circular saw, a cement mixer truck, and a modern hydraulic excavator all have in common? The obvious answer is that they are all tools and equipment commonly found on construction sites today. Imagine what the jobsite would be like today without construction technology.
Without heavy equipment, laborers would be excavating sites and digging trenches with shovels and pickaxes. Without the elevator, buildings would only be a few stories tall. Technology has made construction sites safer and workers more efficient. It has allowed us to increase productivity, improve collaboration, and tackle more complex projects. The Construction Industry Institute defines construction technology as "the collection of innovative tools, machinery, modifications, software, etc.
We can take that a step further and include preconstruction technology with things like online bid boards, bid management apps, and digital takeoff solutions. Today, new technologies in construction are being developed at a breakneck pace.
What seemed like future tech 10, 20 years ago like connected equipment and tools, telematics, mobile apps, autonomous heavy equipment, drones, robots, augmented and virtual reality, and 3D printed buildings are here and being deployed and used on jobsites across the world.
And, while construction firms continue to underinvest in technology, venture capitalists are betting big on the future of construction tech.
The traditional method of design-bid-build makes construction disjointed and siloed. Every construction site is different, presenting its own unique set of challenges and risks. This makes it difficult to streamline processes and increase productivity the way industries like manufacturing and retail have been able to do.
Today there are software and mobile solutions to help manage every aspect of a construction project. Most software solutions are cloud-based, allowing changes and updates to documents, schedules, and other management tools to be made in real time, facilitating better communication and collaboration.
Mobile technology allows for real-time data collection and transmission between the jobsite and project managers in the back office. Cloud-based solutions enable on-site employees to submit timecards, expense reports, requests for information RFIs , work records, and other verified documentation. This can save hundreds of hours per year in data entry and automatically organizes critical files—no more shuffling through files looking for old reports. More and more software providers are forming strategic partnerships to allow you to seamlessly integrate your data with your other software solutions, making it easier than ever to run your business.
Offsite construction is typically used on projects with repetitive floorplans or layouts in their design such as apartment buildings, hotels, hospitals, dormitories, prisons, and schools. Offsite is performed in a controlled environment and it works similar to an auto manufacturing plant. At each station, workers have all the tools and materials to consistently perform their task, whether that be constructing a wall frame or installing electrical wiring.
This assembly plant method of construction reduces waste and allows workers to be more productive. Offsite construction typically comes in two forms: modular and prefabricated. With modular construction, entire rooms can be built complete with MEP, finishes, and fixtures already installed. They can be rooms as small as bathrooms or modules can be fitted together onsite to create larger spaces like apartment units.
The modular units are transported to the construction site and then inserted and attached to the structural frame. With prefabricated construction, building components are built offsite and then assembled or installed once they have been transported to the construction site.
Prefabricated building components cover everything from framing, internal and external wall panels, door and window assemblies, floor systems, and multi-trade racks, which are panels with all the ductwork, wiring, and plumbing packaged together.
Construction firms are now using data to make better decisions, increase productivity, improve jobsite safety, and reduce risks. With artificial intelligence AI and machine learning systems, firms can turn the mountains of data they have collected over the years on projects to predict future outcomes on projects and gain a competitive advantage when estimating and bidding on construction projects.
AI can improve worker productivity by reducing the amount of time wasted moving about the construction site to retrieve tools, materials, and equipment to perform certain tasks. Workers are tracked throughout the day using smartphones or wearables. Sensors installed on materials and equipment track how everything else is moving about the construction site. Once enough data sets are collected, AI can analyze how workers move about and interact with the site to come up with solutions to reorganize the placement of tools and materials to make them more accessible to workers and reduce downtime.
Robots and artificial intelligence AI are also being used to monitor jobsite progress with real-time, actionable data to improve jobsite productivity. Autonomous drones and rovers are equipped with high-definition cameras and LiDAR to photograph and scan the construction site each day with pinpoint accuracy.
AI then uses those scans to compare against your BIM models, 3D drawings, construction schedule, and estimates to inspect the quality of the work performed and to determine how much progress has been made each day. Deep-learning algorithms are then used to identify and report errors in work performed. This can be anything from the excavation and site work to the mechanical, electrical and plumbing systems.
The AI can recognize a building component based on its shape, size and location even if only a portion of the component is visible. By classifying and measuring quantities installed, these systems can tell you how much work was done each day, which it can then compare against your construction schedule and alerts you if your project is falling behind. The AI also detects deviations between installed components and onsite work with models so you can quickly identify errors and avoid costly rework.
As construction technology adoption continues to ramp up in the construction industry, one area getting a lot of attention is improving safety. Of the 4, worker deaths in , were in construction. Worker safety should be the number one priority of every construction company and technology solutions are making it easier to properly train and monitor workers to prevent accidents and reduce the rate of serious injuries and worker deaths. Safety training and equipment operator training are two areas where virtual reality VR could have a strong impact on the construction industry.
With VR, workers could get exposure to environments such as confined spaces or working at height in a safe, controlled environment. VR simulators have been used for years to train soldiers, pilots, and surgeons and could be used in the same way to train workers on everything from operating cranes and excavators to doing welding and masonry work. Augmented reality AR is another technology that can greatly improve safety on the construction site. Workers could walk to a specific area of a jobsite and have a safety checklist, specific to the task at hand, pop up on a display integrated into a smart hard hat or safety goggles to make sure they have the proper personal protective equipment on and are performing their tasks safely.
Safety managers and trainers could monitor exactly what the workers are seeing and walk them through tasks as they work. Wearables are being used to monitor workers and their environment to make jobsite safer. Wearable tech in construction is being embedded into apparel and personal protective equipment PPE already common on construction sites like hard hats, gloves, safety vests and work boots. Geofencing allows site or safety supervisors to establish restricted or hazardous areas that will alert workers with a combination of alarms and lights that they have entered an area that is off limits.
Smart clothing, or e-textiles, that can monitor vital signs like respiration rate, skin temperature, and heart rate will also make their way to the construction site. Keeping a watchful eye on workers can help predict an accident before it occurs.
Site sensors that can be deployed across a construction site to monitor things like temperature, noise levels, dust particulates, and volatile organic compounds to help limit exposure to workers. The sensors are mounted throughout the construction site and can alert workers immediately when they are at risk from permissible exposure levels being reached.
Data from the sensors are collected and can be analyzed to mitigate exposure levels and keep workers safe and stay compliant with OSHA regulations. As a result of the housing crash and the Great Recession, over 2. While job growth in the industry has been strong the past few years, there are still areas of the country feeling the pinch of a skilled labor shortage. Demand for workers in construction is expected to grow significantly through the next decade.
Younger workers, who lack the skills and experience of their veteran peers, can benefit from the technology being deployed on jobsites today. Drones are being used on jobsites in a number of ways.
Drones can be used to quickly conduct jobsite inspections and identify potential hazards each day. They can also be used to monitor workers throughout the day to ensure everyone is working safely. Drones are being used to take photos of as work progresses to create as-built models of jobsites to keep everyone informed of the changing work conditions each day. Drones are also being used to tackle more dangerous jobs, like bridge and building inspections.
Current robots are good at doing simple, repetitive tasks which is why we are seeing things like bricklaying robots or rebar tying robots. In both these examples, humans are still needed to perform some of the work.
Both still require workers to set up the robots and get them started. The rebar tying robot still needs humans to correctly place and space the rebar before it gets set in motion. Autonomous heavy equipment , using similar technology for self-driving cars, is currently being used on jobsites to perform excavation, grading, and sitework. This type of technology allows operators to be completely removed from the machine, allowing companies to do the same amount of work with fewer workers.
These machines use sensors, drones, and GPS to navigate the construction site and conduct sitework based on 3D models of the terrain to accurately excavate and grade the site.
Augmented GPS, a combination of onsite base stations and satellites, can be used to geofence the site and allow autonomous equipment to move around the site with precision accuracy. The benefit of adopting technology like drones, robots, and autonomous or self-controlled equipment are twofold. First, within the next decade, workers entering the workforce that has grown up using tablets and smartphones their entire life, so operating these machines will be second nature to them.
Second, younger workers, regardless of what field they go into, are going to expect to be using technology to perform their jobs.
As we mentioned earlier, a major issue in construction projects today is a highly fragmented industry. With workers, engineers, and equipment distributed around a jobsite, plus offsite stakeholders, including project managers and the customer, it can be hard to get everyone on the same page when a decision needs to be made. Smartphones and mobile apps have made communication and collaboration on projects easier.
Being able to communicate in real time ensures that any issues on the jobsite get resolved quickly and effectively and that every stakeholder can have a say.
Integrated solutions that sync in real-time allow different stakeholders to add notes, change drawings and responds to RFIs instantly and then share that information with everyone involved with the project at the same time. Building Information Modeling BIM is a process that incorporates digital representations of buildings in 3D models to facilitate better collaboration among all stakeholders on a project. This can lead to better design and construction of buildings.
Changes to the BIM model occur in real time, so any changes or updates to the model are instantly communicated to all team members when they access the model. Everyone is working with the most up-to-date information at all times.
Because the schedule can be simulated, a visual representation of the construction process allows team members to plan out each phase of construction. The type of immersive visualization made possible by VR paired with BIM will lead to better collaboration and communication.
Virtual reality will also lead to greater acceptance and implementation of BIM. Most virtual reality applications being developed for the AEC industry are using BIM models as the basis to create virtual environments.
Skip to content. All Homes Search Contact. Final year civil engineering projects a Selection of project topics. Sitemap Advanced Earthquake Resistant Techniques 3. CE is a swiftly improving industry, constantly accommodating to a state of the art developments and affairs, such as pollution, water shortages, and sustainable energies. This course covers plenty of scientific topics; mechanics, hydraulics, materials science, statistical analysis, and many more.
The critical path method CPM is a popular scheduling technique in the construction industry due to its simplicity and effectiveness. It also determines critical activities requiring attention so that the project can be completed on time. A CPM lists all activities in a project and includes information about how long each activity will take and how each relates to the completion of other activities. Consider a simple example of a project with three activities:. From these basic details, we know that the fastest the project can be completed is six months because Activities A and B each will take half that time, and B cannot be started until A is complete.
By: Kendall Jones on April 16th, Construction Technology. This article was originally published on December 5, Last updated: April 16, What do a pickup truck, a nail gun, a portable circular saw, a cement mixer truck, and a modern hydraulic excavator all have in common?
The critical path method CPM is a staple of construction schedulers. Owners often require a critical path analysis. Construction management programs have taught CPM for decades, and courts use critical path schedules as evidence in construction disputes. However, CPM intimidates many people because they find it complex and time consuming. Some construction superintendents and foremen view critical path as a theoretical abstraction that is irrelevant to their work.
Time and motion study, analysis through statistics. Methods and procedures for prospecting for road construction. Subasinghe e department of mechanical engineering faculty of engineering university of peradeniya time and motion study what is time and motion study. The goals of motion study improvement planning scheduling cost. Noise induced hearing loss continues to afflict workers in many occupational settings. Earliest time that a task can begin if all preceding tasks are completed in the shortest possible time latest time for task initiation that will not delay the project latest and earliest finish for the overall project total float the maximum slippage without overall delay implementation. Im wondering if anyone has a time and motion study template that they can point me to, or share with me.
A pipeline is not a tunnel, though some recent tunnels have used immersed tube construction techniques rather than traditional tunnel boring methods. A tunnel may be for foot or vehicular road traffic , for rail traffic, or for a canal. The central portions of a rapid transit network are usually in the tunnel. Some tunnels are aqueducts to supply water for consumption or for hydroelectric stations or are sewers. Utility tunnels are used for routing steam, chilled water, electrical power or telecommunication cables, as well as connecting buildings for convenient passage of people and equipment. Secret tunnels are built for military purposes, or by civilians for smuggling of weapons , contraband , or people. Special tunnels, such as wildlife crossings , are built to allow wildlife to cross human-made barriers safely.
Она съежилась от этого прикосновения. Он опустил руку и отвернулся, а повернувшись к ней снова, увидел, что она смотрит куда-то поверх его плеча, на стену. Там, в темноте, ярко сияла клавиатура. Стратмор проследил за ее взглядом и нахмурился Он надеялся, что Сьюзан не заметит эту контрольную панель. Эта светящаяся клавиатура управляла его личным лифтом.
Это был уже не тот раздавленный отчаянием человек, каким она видела его десять минут. Коммандер Тревор Стратмор снова стал самим собой - человеком железной логики и самообладания, делающим то, что полагалось делать. Последние слова предсмертной записки Хейла крутились у нее в голове, не повинуясь никаким приказам. И в первую очередь я искренне сожалею о Дэвиде Беккере. Простите. Я был ослеплен своими амбициями. Ее тревога не была напрасной.
По другой стороне улицы, оставаясь невидимым, шел человек в очках в тонкой металлической оправе.
Time and motion study, analysis through statistics. Methods and procedures for prospecting for road construction. Subasinghe e department of.Reply