File Name: direct and indirect speech table .zip
Normally, the tense in reported speech is one tense back in time from the tense in direct speech: She said, "I am tired. You do not need to change the tense if the reporting verb is in the present, or if the original statement was about something that is still true, e. These modal verbs do not change in reported speech: might, could, would, should, ought to :. Home Welcome to EF. Programs See everything we do. Offices Find an office near you. About EF Who we are.
He said that he was a carpenter. Simple past Direct Reported speech Do you like? He asked me if I liked Present continuous Im working at the moment. He said that he was working at that Past continuous speech Will you come? He asked me if I would come moment. I he, she Are you feeling? He asked me if I was feeling Simple Past I was there last year.
DIRECT SPEECH. REPORTED SPEECH. Verb tenses. Simple Present. I am a carpenter. He said that he was a carpenter. Simple past. Present.
In linguistics , indirect speech also reported speech or indirect discourse is a grammatical mechanism for reporting the content of another utterance without directly quoting it. For example, the English sentence Jill said she was coming is indirect discourse while Jill said "I'm coming" would be direct discourse. In many languages, indirect discourse is expressed using a content clause or infinitival.
Direct and indirect speech can be a source of confusion for English learners. Let's first define the terms, then look at how to talk about what someone said, and how to convert speech from direct to indirect or vice-versa. Direct speech repeats, or quotes, the exact words spoken. When we use direct speech in writing, we place the words spoken between quotation marks " " and there is no change in these words. We may be reporting something that's being said NOW for example a telephone conversation , or telling someone later about a previous conversation.
Do online exercises and download a free worksheet. Get the Reported Speech Illustrated Workbook: The easy way to teach and learn direct and reported speech. Get this illustrated workbook and you will receive the following items:. Join our mailing list now and get a special bonus:.
PDF book 1: English tenses exercises. PDF book 2: English grammar exercises.
Do not change the tense if the introductory clause is in a present tense e. He says. Note, however, that you might have to change the form of the present tense verb 3rd person singular. You must change the tense if the introductory clause is in a past tense e. He said.