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Kevin Dobbin, Joanna H. The rapid growth in the use of microarrays has generated many questions about how to design experiments that use this technology effectively. Investigators need answers to questions about RNA sample selection, allocation of samples to arrays, robustness of design, dye bias, sample size, and statistical power to ensure that the experimental objectives are achieved. We address some common questions that arise in designing dual-label microarray experiments and provide statistical answers to these questions, focusing specifically on how to select optimal designs for the identification of differentially expressed genes. The dual-label microarray measures the expression level of thousands of genes for a sample of cells.
Metrics details. In the ten years since the first sequencing of the human genome, much has been made of the need to look to gene regulation, and not gene number or DNA sequence, for the evolution of organismal diversity and complexity - an issue that rose to prominence, with the realization first, that the number of human genes is about the same as the number required to specify a nematode worm; and second, that the DNA of H. But the realization that the secret of evolution lies in changes in gene regulation considerably predates the revelations of genomics. Allan Wilson and colleagues, in a paper published in [ 1 ], drew attention to the simple and striking fact that morphologically homogeneous frog species also have relatively homogeneous karyotypes, whereas mammalian species, which are markedly diverse morphologically, also show major differences in chromosome number and organization; changes in proteins, by contrast, are much the same for both groups. They concluded that genome organization, and by implication gene regulation, is more important for metazoan evolution than protein sequence and cite earlier publications of EB Ford and Susumu Ohno for the same insight.
Question 2: Can untranslated regions (UTRs) regulate gene expression? A) Yes. B) No. Answer: A) Yes. Explanation: Although UTRs are not part of the protein-.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Since the elucidation of the double-helix structure of deoxyribonucleic acid DNA in , biologists have been racing to understand the details of the science of genetics.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product that enables it to produce protein as the end product. Gene expression is summarized in the central dogma of molecular biology first formulated by Francis Crick in ,  further developed in his article,  and expanded by the subsequent discoveries of reverse transcription    and RNA replication. The process of gene expression is used by all known life— eukaryotes including multicellular organisms , prokaryotes bacteria and archaea , and utilized by viruses —to generate the macromolecular machinery for life. In genetics , gene expression is the most fundamental level at which the genotype gives rise to the phenotype , i.
If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. Please consult the latest official manual style if you have any questions regarding the format accuracy. Explain that the many steps involved in the vectorial processes of gene expression, which range from targeted modulation of gene copy number, to gene rearrangement, to transcription, to mRNA processing and transport from the nucleus, to translation, to protein subcellular compartmentalization, to posttranslational modification and degradation, are all subject to regulatory control, both positive and negative. Appreciate that DNA binding transcription factors, proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences that are physically linked to their target transcriptional promoter elements, can either activate or repress gene transcription. Understand that nucleosome-directed regulatory events typically increase or decrease the accessibility of the underlying DNA such as enhancer or promoter sequences, although nucleosome modification can also create new binding sites for other coregulators.