india development and participation pdf

India development and participation pdf

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Published: 21.05.2021

Thomas W. Lamont University Professor, and Professor of Economics and Philosophy

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A Region- and Gender-Specific Study

Thomas W. Lamont University Professor, and Professor of Economics and Philosophy

ISAS publishes a regular series of Insights which provides quick analytical responses to developments and occurrences in South Asia. As India progresses economically, there are calls for the country to pay more attention to social and human development, including women empowerment.

While the Scandinavian countries such as Iceland, Sweden, Finland and Norway have made strides in narrowing the gender gap, significant economic and social disparities run deep in the Middle East, South Asia and Africa. It has made gains by ratifying international conventions and formulating domestic policies intended to end gender inequality.

The government has created the space for international agencies to work with state governments, local non-government organisations and private corporations on a plethora of projects to support women from different socio-economic backgrounds.

Equal rights for men and women are enshrined under Articles 14 to 16 in the Indian constitution, which came into effect on 26 January India was the second country in modern history to have a female leader, Indira Gandhi, in after another South Asian state, Sri Lanka, elected Sirimavo Bandaranaike in New Delhi has also taken a concerted effort to ratify key international conventions to end discrimination against women. It is a founding member of the International Labour Organisation ILO and has ratified 47 conventions and one protocol.

Within the country, the Dowry Prohibition Act, and the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, have been enacted to criminalise instances of dowry and domestic violence. The government also increased maternity leave from 12 weeks to 26 weeks under the Maternity Benefit Act in for the private sector.

This is an attempt to increase female political participation. The bill was first introduced on 12 September by the Deve Gowda government. Successive governments tried to push for the bill but it took 14 years to get it passed in the Rajya Sabha Upper House of Parliament. The introduction of the bill was a historic attempt to alter gender demographics in the Indian polity. In contrast, sceptics think that the bill would only benefit elite women.

While a 33 per cent female reservation is a bold step, the Trinamool Congress, one of the ardent supporters of the bill, went a step further by reserving 40 per cent seats for women to contest in the Lok Sabha elections.

Women in India are emerging in all sectors, including politics, business, medicine, sports and agriculture. Female leadership for a huge space mission challenged the meta narrative that rocket science is a profession reserved for men.

Women were first inducted into the armed forces in and have served in a multitude of positions, including fighter pilots, doctors, nurses, engineers, signallers, etc. While the issue of women serving in combat roles continues to be a contentious one worldwide, these are instances where Indian women have overcome the glass ceiling in the armed forces. The federal and state governments have launched new schemes, policies and programmes to empower both urban and rural women. The Mahila-E-Haat project, an online marketing campaign, was launched in It uses technology to support female entrepreneurs, self-help groups and non-government organisations NGOs.

Each scheme has its own unique objective, ranging from welfare of the girl child and community engagement to supporting aspiring female entrepreneurs. The government has also created the space for international agencies to work with state governments, local NGOs and private corporations. For instance, the World Bank is working closely with the federal government and the Andhra Pradesh government to improve the quality of public health services in the state, including maternal and child healthcare.

While India has taken some measures on human development, its global standing on gender equality remains low. India has managed to close two-thirds of its overall gender gap, especially in areas of political empowerment. It was ranked 18 th on the Political Empowerment sub index, given that a woman headed the government for 20 years.

However, female legislators constitute only Unfortunately, its performance on economic empowerment for women has widened since The survey concluded that only 25 per cent of women relative to 82 per cent of men are working or seeking employment. Moreover, their average income is around a fifth of what their male counterparts are earning. Even when Indian women secure jobs, there is a high propensity for them to be paid less than male employees. Indian women make up merely 14 per cent of leadership roles.

The economic empowerment of women will benefit everyone. There are lessons that India could draw from the Japanese model to increase economic empowerment for women. The implementation and strengthening of new and existing legislation can incentivise women to join the workforce and continue working during marriage and early childrearing years. Although India has one of the most generous maternity leave policies, it is applicable to a small margin of working women.

Its desire to replicate policies that have worked well elsewhere without taking the ground realities into account has resulted in few women actually benefiting from them. While studying these models closely could be useful, they need to be contexualised and fine-tuned to the Indian environment. The Indian legal system is also confronted with gaps between policy and practice. Despite existing legislation to protect women and girls, the enforcement of these laws and conviction of alleged perpetrators is weak.

The gaps in these processes are widened by systemic bureaucracy and corruption. There is also the issue of women empowerment being less visible in rural India than in urban settings. This should be a big concern in India, given that the rural population is around Women in urban areas have greater access to education, employment, healthcare services and decision-making power.

In rural areas, especially in the Hindi heartland, gender disparity is still significant. Women continue to be relegated to household tasks, with little or no say in economic decisions.

Levels of literacy, nutrition and access to health care continue to be poor, and social welfare parameters are lower than neighbouring Bangladesh. Female parliamentary representation has remained low at 20 per cent or less in the region, except for Sri Lanka 33 per cent. Researchers Jawad Syed and Edwina Pio have argued that efforts to achieve women empowerment in South Asia should be seen through the lens of religious, cultural and socio-economic particularities where new provisions in the legal sphere may not always be enforced and discrimination could continue within the societal and family structures.

The patriarchal and patrilineal customs, with some exceptions, have impeded female mobility, access to basic healthcare and access to education and have led to forced marriages. Gender-based violence in the form of domestic, sexual and physical violence is particularly rampant in South Asia when the victims lack agency and power.

In India alone, crimes against women are around In the capital, New Delhi, 92 per cent of women have said that they have experienced physical or sexual violence in public areas. While visible gains have been made through legal reforms, human development and grassroots initiatives, New Delhi still has a long way to go in many areas of women empowerment.

A more concerted effort is needed to close the urban-rural divide and ensure that women in rural areas enjoy the same access to education, employment, healthcare and decision-making as their urban counterparts. The hardest challenge will be to change attitudes, given that many barriers to women empowerment are attributed to patriarchal and patrilineal traditions that are deeply entrenched in many South Asian societies.

She can be contacted at roshni nus. The authors bear full responsibility for the facts cited and opinions expressed in this paper. Accessed on 10 June Accessed on 11 June It is commonly known as the international bill of rights for women.

Accessed on 12 June Accessed on 13 June Accessed on 14 June Accessed on 15 June Contact Join Us Site Map. Photo Credit: education.

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It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. Authors: Mitra , Arup, Okada , Aya. This book focuses on the gender-specific labour force participation rates across regions in India and identifies its most important determinants. Before concentrating on the Indian context, it examines the participation rates of various countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Not unexpectedly, the study shows that the rate is significantly lower for females than for males in this region.

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A Region- and Gender-Specific Study

ISAS publishes a regular series of Insights which provides quick analytical responses to developments and occurrences in South Asia. As India progresses economically, there are calls for the country to pay more attention to social and human development, including women empowerment. While the Scandinavian countries such as Iceland, Sweden, Finland and Norway have made strides in narrowing the gender gap, significant economic and social disparities run deep in the Middle East, South Asia and Africa. It has made gains by ratifying international conventions and formulating domestic policies intended to end gender inequality. The government has created the space for international agencies to work with state governments, local non-government organisations and private corporations on a plethora of projects to support women from different socio-economic backgrounds. Equal rights for men and women are enshrined under Articles 14 to 16 in the Indian constitution, which came into effect on 26 January

The authors have proposed a perspective broader than the more standard economic analysis of development by focusing on the complementarity between economic advancement and social opportunities. Professors Sen and Dreze have produced an excellent book. Explore Plus.

This book explores the role of public action in eliminating deprivation and expanding human freedoms in India. The analysis is based on a broad and integrated view of development, which focuses on wellbeing and freedom rather than the standard indicators of economic growth. The authors place human agency at centre stage, and stress the complementary roles of different institutions economic, social, and political in enhancing effective freedoms.

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In this paper, we evaluate the impact and potential of these development programmes known as Small Development Projects SDPs , introduced by India as part of its development cooperation portfolio in Nepal. We show that the positive externalities enjoyed by Nepal are a result of a complex interaction among these stakeholders as explained by the process through which the projects are delivered. We argue that the outcome of SDPs would be less than optimal if any one of the above mentioned constituents are missing. It would also be affected if the current process of approval is compromised as it brings in due representation of these actors, thus creating an approach that is more nuanced and balanced and one which leads to synergy between state and community for a better development. The paper concludes that the decentralised mode of project delivery led to demand for those projects that were relevant to the community.

Participation in Self-Help Group Activities and its Impacts: Evidence from South India

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