File Name: depression and substance abuse .zip
Substance abuse , also known as drug abuse , is use of a drug in amounts or by methods which are harmful to the individual or others. It is a form of substance-related disorder.
Everyone has bad days. For most people, the down periods come and go in a reasonable, ordinary fashion and can be remedied by things that make us happy. Clinical depression is a serious mental disability with severe consequences for the individual and his or her loved ones. Depression affects millions of people — keeping them from living normal, happy lives. Substance abuse is common among people who are battling a depressive disorder.
Metrics details. Several evidences from epidemiologic and treatment studies indicate that anxiety disorders, depression, and substance use disorders commonly co-occur, and the interaction is multifaceted and variable.
Epidemiological studies and investigations within clinical substance abuse populations have found an association between anxiety disorders, depression, and substance use disorders.
The mean age was Substance use disorder SUD patients expressed higher levels of anxiety and depression in comparison to the control group.
Substance use disorders are associated with high levels of anxiety and depression. More specifically, it is associated with severe depression and anxiety. There is an obvious association between the presence of anxiety and depression on the one hand and the severity of drug-related problems on the other hand. Depression and anxiety are commonly present together in patients with SUDs.
The lifetime prevalence of any substance use in Egypt varies between 7. Substance use disorders, mood, and anxiety disorders are widespread among the general population [ 2 , 3 , 4 ] and are associated with substantial social, economic, and health loss [ 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 ].
Anxiety and depression are among the most common problems reported by persons seeking treatment for drug addiction. Primary psychiatric symptoms persist behind detoxification and remission of addictive behavior. From an addiction perspective, there may be significant risks associated with concurrent depression and anxiety symptoms, regardless of etiology [ 10 ].
Anxiety can be caused by drug addiction. Anxiety commonly occurs during the acute withdrawal phase of alcohol and can persist for up to 2 years as part of a post-acute withdrawal syndrome, in about a quarter of people recovering from alcoholism [ 11 ]. Depression and anxiety symptoms are among the most common problems reported by persons seeking treatment for drug addiction.
Drug addiction, anxiety, and depression account for three-quarters of the disability attributed to mental disorders [ 12 ]. Depression and drug addiction are critical, not only because of their high prevalence but also because of their negative consequences.
Individuals with co-morbid mental health and drug addiction often experience severe illness, disability, and poor treatment outcomes [ 13 ]. This study was done with the aim to assess levels of anxiety and depression among drug addict people. This is a descriptive case-control study conducted at Assiut University Neuropsychiatry Hospital. This is an educational health facility, which provides both inpatient and outpatient mental health services to the entire population of Upper Egypt.
The study was conducted from December until the end of May The study included a selective sample of patients with substance use disorder.
Patients had to meet the following criteria to be included in the study: i to be 18 years or older, ii to be currently diagnosed with substance use disorder SUD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IV-TR , and iii to accept the participation in the study. Exclusion criteria included the following: i the patient had a known psychiatric diagnosis before being diagnosed with SUD, ii the patient was mentally retarded or has an organic brain disorder, and iii the patient has a chronic medical illness.
The control group included 50 subjects without a history of the current or past history of SUD and free from chronic illnesses as well. Data were collected using face-to-face interviews conducted by a trained study team including a psychiatrist and psychologist. The researchers introduced themselves to participants before the interview and clearly expressed the purpose of the study, and consent was obtained from every participant.
We gathered information about socio-demographic information using this scale, which is prepared by Professor Abdel Tawab Abdullah, Faculty of Education, Assiut University, in and modified in It includes four main variables: [ 1 ] the educational level of the father and mother, [ 2 ] the occupation of the father and mother, [ 3 ] total family income, and [ 4 ] lifestyle of the family [ 14 ].
This scale has been developed in the original English language version by Berman in [ 15 ]. It was translated into Arabic and validated by Sfendla and colleagues in [ 16 ]. The purpose of the Drug Use Disorder Identification Test was to identify the use of patterns and various drug-related problems. It consists of 11 items, and the total score of this test was 44 points.
This scale has been developed by Max Hamilton in [ 17 ] and was translated into the Arabic language by Fatim in [ 18 ]. The purpose of this scale was to measure the severity of anxiety. The total score of this scale ranged from 0 to 56 and was divided into four levels: 17 or less indicated mild anxiety, from 18 to 24 indicated mild to moderate anxiety, 25 to 29 indicated a moderate to severe anxiety, and more than 30 indicated severe anxiety. Initially developed by Max Hamilton in [ 20 ], it has gone through numerous revisions since then.
The Arabic version has high reliability and validity [ 21 , 22 ]. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale consists of 21 items to rate the severity of depression. Mild depression is ranging from 13 to 16, moderate depression is ranging from 17 to 19, and severe depression is ranging from 20 to above.
A descriptive analysis using means with standard deviation, frequency counts, and percentages was carried out. Pearson correlation coefficients r were employed to address the relationship between caregiver burden and study variables [ 23 ]. Their mean age was Sixty-seven percent of them reported that they started drug use because of many reasons such as the effect of bad friends, as an experiment, to give them strength and activity, to forget problems and feel relaxed, to improve sexual ability, to spend excessive money, and to relieve chronic pain.
The results were similar as regards to anxiety. The purpose of this study was to assess the levels of anxiety and depression among SUD patients. Another objective of this study was to determine the correlation between the level of anxiety and depression on the one hand and the socio-demographic variables and drug use-related problems on the other side. The current study revealed that the majority of drug addict people were polydrug addict. This might be due to the fact that one drug is used as a base or primary drug, with additional drugs to leaven or compensate for the side effects of the primary drug and make the experience more enjoyable with drug synergy effects or to supplement for the primary drug when supply is low [ 24 ].
These results are consistent with the findings of Panebiance et al. On the opposite side, Jabeen et al. Some studies indicated that substance use has been linked to some kind of emotional distress prior to consumption [ 30 , 31 ].
Others indicated that substance use is often used as a method to relieve emotional problems [ 32 ], although its effects are not very durable or effective in the long term, as consumption tends to enhance depressive symptoms [ 33 ].
Many studies are in concordance with our results. For example, Hodgson et al. Additionally, Pakhtunkhwa et al. The results of this study showed a positive correlation between the presence of anxiety, depression, and substance-related problems elicited by DUDIT. Considering the mutual maintenance pattern of this comorbidity, it is not surprising that both anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders impact the course and treatment outcome for the counterpart condition.
For example, studies have shown that anxiety and depressive disorders are related to increased severity of lifetime alcohol use disorders, increased lifetime service utilization among individuals with a substance use disorder, increased the severity of alcohol withdrawal, and higher relapse rates following substance abuse treatment [ 36 , 37 , 38 , 39 , 40 ].
The correlation between anxiety and depression in this study can be explained by the direct causation model which states that one disorder causes or lowers the threshold for the expression of the other disorder [ 41 ]. The shared etiology model also referred to as the correlated liabilities model [ 42 ] indicated that a common set of risk factors leads to the development of both depression and anxiety.
These findings are similar with the previous study reported by Grant et al. The prevalence of anxiety and depression among patients with substance use disorders is considerably high, and to be more specific, the level of severe depression and severe anxiety is the one we mean. Depression and anxiety are commonly present together in the patients with SUDs. These findings throw the light on the problem of dual diagnosis and its impact on the prognosis and treatment process. The findings of this study should be cautiously interpreted because a small sample was used.
The restriction of the sample prevents the findings from being generalized to the larger population. This study relies completely on self-reports. Substance Abuse 34 2 — J Subst Abuse 7 4 — Am J Orthopsychiatry 66 1 — JAMA 19 — J Occup Environ Med 45 1 :5— Association with symptoms, impairment, course and help-seeking.
Br J Psychiatry — Sanderson K, Andrews G Prevalence and severity of mental health-related disability and relationship to diagnosis. Psychiatr Serv 53 1 — JAMA 23 — Archived from the original on 15 December Retrieved 20 October Drug and Alcohol Dependence, journal of psychiatric disorder 71 6 — Google Scholar. Johnson A Addiction medicine, science and practice. New York: Springer 5 3 — Najt P, Fusar-Poli P, Brambilla P Co-occurring mental and substance abuse disorders: a review on the potential predictors and clinical outcomes.
Psychiatry Res — Abd Al-Twab A Family socio-economic status scale, revised edition, MD. Thesis in educational basics, faculty of education. Assiut University — J Subst Abuse Treat 32 4 — International Journal of Behavioral Medicine 24 2 — Hamilton M The assessment of anxiety states by rating.
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When you have both a substance abuse problem and a mental health issue such as depression, bipolar disorder, or anxiety, it is called a co-occurring disorder or dual diagnosis. To make the situation more complicated, the co-occurring disorders also affect each other. When a mental health problem goes untreated, the substance abuse problem usually gets worse. And when alcohol or drug abuse increases, mental health problems usually increase too. Co-occurring substance abuse problems and mental health issues are more common than many people realize.
Metrics details. Several evidences from epidemiologic and treatment studies indicate that anxiety disorders, depression, and substance use disorders commonly co-occur, and the interaction is multifaceted and variable. Epidemiological studies and investigations within clinical substance abuse populations have found an association between anxiety disorders, depression, and substance use disorders. The mean age was Substance use disorder SUD patients expressed higher levels of anxiety and depression in comparison to the control group.
Conclusions: This study showed a high prevalence of depression in drug addicts, regard- less of the type and duration of drug abuse, and a signifi- cant.
Arch Gen Psychiatry. Brook, J. Psychiatric disorders, measured by age-appropriate versions of the University of Michigan Composite International Diagnostic Interview, and participant's drug use were assessed. Earlier alcohol use significantly predicted later major depressive disorder, alcohol dependence, and substance use disorders in the late 20s, as did early marijuana use and other illicit drug use.
Changes in our mood and anxiety levels are part of life. We want to feel well often, with a good mood and no anxiety. It's also normal to feel down or low after a disappointment, loss, frustration, or difficult day.
Research has generally concluded that adolescent depression and substance use are strongly interrelated, but has rarely considered how this relationship may vary across diverse populations. In this study, we used quantitative and qualitative methods to explore the relationships among depression and cigarette, alcohol, marijuana, and harder drug use across two culturally disparate environments: a suburban and an inner-city high school.
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