hybrid and alternative fuel vehicles halderman pdf

Hybrid and alternative fuel vehicles halderman pdf

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James D. Halderman

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James D. Halderman

Metrics details. Electric vehicles have been identified as being a key technology in reducing future emissions and energy consumption in the mobility sector. The focus of this article is to review and assess the energy efficiency and the environmental impact of battery electric cars BEV , which is the only technical alternative on the market available today to vehicles with internal combustion engine ICEV. Electricity onboard a car can be provided either by a battery or a fuel cell FCV.

Such an e-conversion project generated reality-close data reported here. This article reports on an e-conversion of a used Smart. Measurements on this car, prior and after conversion, confirmed a fourfold energy efficiency advantage of BEV over ICEV, as supposed in literature. This, however, is only true if the electricity is provided by very efficient power plants or better by renewable energy production.

Literature data available for BEV, on the other hand, were mostly modeled and based on relatively heavy BEV as well as driving conditions, which do not represent the most useful field of BEV operation. Literature data have been compared with measurements based on the converted Smart, revealing a distinct GHG emissions advantage due to the German electricity net conditions, which can be considerably extended by charging electricity from renewable sources.

Life cycle carbon footprint of BEV is reviewed based on literature data with emphasis on lithium-ion batteries. Battery life cycle assessment LCA data available in literature, so far, vary significantly by a factor of up to 5. Findings of the article confirm that the electric car can serve as a suitable instrument towards a much more sustainable future in mobility.

While CO 2 -LCA of BEV seems to be relatively well known apart from the battery, life cycle impact of BEV in categories other than the global warming potential reveals a complex and still incomplete picture. Since technology of the electric car is of limited complexity with the exception of the battery, used cars can also be converted from combustion to electric.

The transport sector includes aircraft, ships, trains, and all types of street vehicles e. Automobiles play a particular role for three reasons: First, cars are dominating the street traffic in most countries. Second, car sales exhibit the greatest growth rates in the world. Third, there are alternative technologies for the drivetrain available unlike, e. Buses can also be driven electrically on limited distances; buses driven by compressed natural gas methane are routinely used. While fuel cell-driven buses are already on the streets, small trucks driven by fuel cells and H 2 are still concepts.

In the future, traffic is expected to grow enormously worldwide, particularly in developing Asian countries. The worldwide vehicle stock of million may grow to one billion in data from Shell , reviewed by Angerer et al. Vehicle production is expected to grow from 63 to million cars per year until [ 2 ]. In addition to the CO 2 emissions, modern internal combustion engine vehicles ICEVs still have dangerous toxic emissions.

According to the World Health Organization WHO [ 3 ], air pollution is a major environmental risk for health and is estimated to cause approximately two million premature deaths worldwide per year. Since ozone, fine dust, NO 2 , and SO 2 have been identified by WHO as being the most dangerous kinds which are mainly, or to a substantial extent, traffic-derived, traffic will be responsible for approximately half of that quantified costs in lives and health. Consequently, almost four million years of life are lost each year due to high pollution levels press release European Environmental Agency, 26 February On the transition to a sustainable society, particularly efficient mobility technologies are needed worldwide.

Electric vehicles have been identified as being such a technology [ 4 ]. In parallel, a couple of countries like Germany, Denmark, and Sweden have decided to switch electricity production from fossil fuel to renewable sources, further improving sustainability of electric cars when compared with ICEV.

At the beginning of the automobile's history, two main competing approaches to engine-driven vehicles existed: one with internal combustion engine ICE and another one with an electric drivetrain. Already in , the American inventor Thomas Davenport built the first electric car. Around the year , electric cars had a significant share of all engine-driven cars. At the same time, F. Porsche already invented a hybrid electric car equipped with an ICE range extender and wheel hub electric engines.

The two different drive trains were competing until Henry Ford, in , chose an ICEV for the first mass production of a car in history summarized in [ 5 ]. From an environmental perspective, this may have been one of the biggest mistakes in the history of technology.

Accordingly, e-conversion, which is the conversion of new or used ICEV to electric cars, can easily be implemented by experienced personnel. In contrast, the modern lithium-ion battery technology, prerequisite for the everyday life practicability of most BEV, is related to very recent technical improvements.

Within the s, electric cars were again offered as series products in California due to its Zero Emission Act summarized in [ 5 ]. After the Zero Emission Act had been suspended, Partial Zero Emission cars were preferred by the Californian government, which prompted the carmaker Toyota to develop the hybrid vehicle, combining electric and combustion engine.

Energy efficiency improved drastically this way see below ; also, the idea of the electric car spread worldwide parallel to the success of the Toyota Prius. Since a full hybrid vehicle is able to drive electrically, it simply needs a plug and a bigger battery in order to be charged like a BEV.

This way, the category of plug-in hybrid vehicles PHEV was created. Within the last 10 years, different drivetrain concepts based on electric motors have been developed and are soon going to enter mass production. All-electric drive and hybrid electric drive have to be differentiated. In contrast to the hybrid electric drive, in the all-electric car, an electric motor is the only energy converter. According to a UN definition from , a hybrid electric drivetrain consists of at least two different energy converters e.

Additionally, electricity onboard an electric car can be generated by a fuel cell. This technology has been investigated for decades, and production of small series of fuel cell vehicles FCV already started or is promised by carmakers to be released within the very next years. An FCV is an electric vehicle with a different energy storage compared to battery electric vehicles.

It is equipped with a buffer battery, which is, however, much smaller compared to a BEV [ 7 ]. With respect to strategic and market perspectives as well as life cycle impacts of electric cars, their practicability in different segments of car sizes needs to be investigated Table 1. Car size is most important in BEV since battery size must grow in parallel to the vehicle's weight. In the next years, electric cars will be mostly small- or mid-size cars due to two main reasons: First, the weight limits the range of operation, which is a factor of suitability for daily use.

Second, battery costs establish another main regulating factor: larger cars need bigger and much more expensive batteries. On the contrary, PHEV and FCV are increasingly useful in the segment of medium-size and large cars because only a small fraction of energy is needed to be carried in the battery. The energy density of compressed hydrogen is close to fossil fuels, very much in contrast to the energy density of available batteries. According to Larminie and Lowry [ 9 ], the main components of a BEV can be divided into the electric battery, the electric motor, and a motor controller Figure 1.

The technical structure of a BEV is simpler compared to ICEV since no starting, exhaust or lubrication system, mostly no gearbox, and sometimes, not even a cooling system are needed. The battery charges with electricity either when plugged in the electricity grid via a charging device or during braking through recuperation.

The motor controller supplies the electric motor with variable power depending on the load situation. The electric motor converts the electric energy into mechanical energy and, when used within a drivetrain, to torque. In series BEV produced so far, central engines have been used; however, hub wheel electric engines are also possible and would be available for mass production summarized in [ 5 ].

Modern, highly efficient electric motors are based on permanent magnetic materials from which the strongest are alloys containing the rare earth elements REE neodymium and samarium, respectively. This has caused some concern since REEs are scarce, and their export is controlled by a few countries, mainly by China Helmers, unpublished work. There are several types of electric motors, usually divided into alternating current AC and direct current DC types. There are both AC and DC electric engines built with and without permanent magnets, according to individual use.

In electric cars, traction motors without magnets are quite usual since they are cheaper Loehr C, personal communication.

In a more detailed view, it can be stated that there are several electric engines available operating without REE magnets: conventional mechanically commutated DC machines, the asynchronous machines, the load-controlled synchronous machines with electrical excitation, and the switched reluctance motors Gerke W, personal communication. This gives the motor industry some flexibility. It is still possible and useful to equip electric vehicles with lead-acid batteries.

Cars of the Californian interim electric vehicle boom in the s were partly driven by lead batteries Table 2 , nevertheless already offering a driving performance comparable to ICE cars. Also, a certain share of today's electric cars e. In order to diversify the future battery technology and materials, it would be useful to keep Pb traction batteries for certain applications.

Electric cars for smaller ranges, as e. Additionally, there are recent performance improvements of the lead battery, thanks to a gel matrix and gassing charge [ 11 ]. However, the enormous increase in energy density offered by Li-ion batteries is the prerequisite for the expected widespread electrification of cars. Nickel metal hydride batteries were used in the interim time when the re-electrification of the automobile started in the s.

However, they do not offer enough power and have a worse environmental impact compared to Li-ion batteries see below. The only alternative to Li-ion batteries with comparable power, the Zebra cell Table 2 , is based on molten salt and, thus, only useful for continuous every day use. Today, a lot of different Li chemistries are available, and prices are continuously decreasing for Li-ion batteries e.

However, the price for a complete Li-ion cell set offering 14 kWh capacity, allowing a km electrical range of a small-size car like a Smart, see below , is still in the order of 5, Euro including taxes.

Life cycle impacts of the various Li-ion chemistries differ significantly see below. Considering the enormous worldwide increase of mobility expected for the future, the reduction of automobile energy demand is one of the most important challenges.

In order to evaluate the technologies available, energy consumption is divided into the well-to-tank WTT and the tank-to-wheel TTW demands. WTT refers to the stage from the extraction of feedstock until the delivery of fuel to the vehicle tank [ 15 ]. TTW quantifies the performance of the drivetrain. Together, both result in the overall well-to-wheel WTW efficiency. The WTW evaluation allows estimation of the overall energy and efficiency of automobiles powered by different propulsion technologies Table 3.

Considering the fact that cars light duty vehicles are so important for worldwide public and private transport, it is astonishing that there are only two technical alternatives to the established ICEV available in the market: battery electric cars and hydrogen-powered fuel cell cars Table 3. Cars equipped with hydrogen-powered fuel cells, however, are not yet available as series products, but manufacturers like Mercedes-Benz and Toyota promised to be close to releasing or have already released a small series of FCV.

However, the necessary H 2 filling station infrastructure is available nowhere in the world, not regarding some single filling stations in a few city centers allowing regional mobility of hydrogen-powered fuel cell vehicles, which must return daily to the same filling station. Efficiencies of different propulsion technologies may be expressed either by CO 2 equivalent emissions per course unit e.

If WTW data are expressed in energy units or CO 2 emissions, they may allow assessing different technology alternatives at least within the ICE sector. Often, these data include both the fuel chain and the operation of cars e. However, comparing WTW data of ICEV with alternative technologies is usually complicated by the lack of data and testing schemes for alternative technologies.

Good realistic data of one technology compared with bad unrealistic data regarding the alternative technology can fundamentally change the results of the efficiency evaluation or, following that, the life cycle assessment LCA comparison.

Automotive Textbooks

Published by Prentice Hall in Boston. Written in English. The Congress should consider exploring opportunities to expand and improve the application of user charges by Federal agencies. Accreditation of accounting-related degree programmes and exemptions from professional accounting examinations in the UK. It combines essential background information with up-to-date, vehicle-specific information on the latest makes. Hybrid and Alternative Fuel Vehicles, 4th Edition.


Hybrids & Alternative Fuel Vehicles 4/E. Chapter 6 Propane, CNG, LNG, & Synthetic Fuel. Opening Your At the beginning of this class, you can download.


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