File Name: prebiotic effects metabolic and health benefits .zip
The impact of habitual orange juice consumption on microbiota, lipid and sugar metabolism was investigated in a controlled clinical trial. Biochemical and dietary parameters were monitored, and blood, urine and stool samples were collected every 30 days until the end of the study. After the washout, these parameters returned to their initial values. There were no changes in the body weight or fat during the experimental time. The intestinal bacteria, Lactobacillus spp.
Prebiotics are compounds in food that induce the growth or activity of beneficial microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi. Dietary prebiotics are typically nondigestible fiber compounds that pass undigested through the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract and stimulate the growth or activity of advantageous bacteria that colonize the large bowel by acting as substrate for them. Depending on the jurisdiction, they typically receive an intermediate level of regulatory scrutiny, in particular of the health claims made concerning them for marketing purposes. The definition of prebiotics and the food ingredients that can fall under this classification, has evolved since its first definition in Compounds that can be classified as prebiotics must also meet the following criteria:  . Thus, consumption of prebiotics may facilitate the health of the host.
Plant prebiotics and human health: Biotechnology to breed prebiotic-rich nutritious food crops. Prebiotics are non-digestible complex carbohydrates that are fermented in the colon, yielding energy and short chain fatty acids, and selectively promote the growth of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillae in the gastro-intestinal tract. Fructans and inulin are the best-characterized plant prebiotics. Many vegetable, root and tuber crops as well as some fruit crops are the best-known sources of prebiotic carbohydrates, while the prebiotic-rich grain crops include barley, chickpea, lentil, lupin, and wheat. Some prebiotic-rich crop germplasm have been reported in barley, chickpea, lentil, wheat, yacon, and Jerusalem artichoke.
Prebiotics are necessary additives to diet, which have a positive influence on human health. Top foods containing prebiotics are chicory root, garlic, onion, wheat bran, etc. Prebiotics are of the nature of oligosaccharides and are nondigestible dietary fiber, which reach up to the colon to be utilized as substrates by the useful gut microflora, namely Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. This results in further multiplication of these bacteria, which prevent colonization by enteric pathogens. Apart from this, several other beneficial effects due to prebiotics are documented: Increase in calcium absorption, potentiation of the immune system, reduction of risk of colorectal cancer and other inflammatory bowel disorders, antihypertensive effect, reduction of constipation, reduction of obesity, antidiabetic effect, etc.
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Prebiotic effects: metabolic and health benefits. British. Journal of Nutrition, (S2). S1-S ISSN Available at hampdenlodgethame.org
Products containing probiotics are targeted at healthy or at-risk individuals as a preventative measure to minimise disease risk. Most studies assessing the efficacy of probiotics in humans include a mixture of healthy and unhealthy populations, while studies that focus solely on female populations are largely limited to pregnancy or those with health conditions. Pre-conception is a significant time-point during the life-course, and improving female health status during this period may positively influence future offspring.
The different compartments of the gastrointestinal tract are inhabited by populations of micro-organisms. By far the most important predominant populations are in the colon where a true symbiosis with the host exists that is a key for well-being and health. For such a microbiota, 'normobiosis' characterises a composition of the gut 'ecosystem' in which micro-organisms with potential health benefits predominate in number over potentially harmful ones, in contrast to 'dysbiosis', in which one or a few potentially harmful micro-organisms are dominant, thus creating a disease-prone situation.
Metrics details. The microbiota is indispensable for human health and the regulation of various body functions, including energy metabolism. The harmonic crosstalk between the microbiota and the intestinal epithelial barrier determines gut homeostasis and health status in the healthy subject. Obesity and type 2 diabetes risk are, to some extent, explained by alterations in the microbiota. Since recent data indicate that the population of gut microorganisms can influence nutrient absorption and energy storage thus prevalence on obesity and metabolic disorders. Moreover, metabolic disease conditions, such as obesity, may be stimulated by genetic, environmental factors and by pathways that link metabolism with the immune system. On the basis of the above considerations, this review compiles the current results obtained in recent studies indicating the gut microbiota contribution to obesity development.
According to the Codex Alimentarius and the Canadian Bureau of Nutritional Sciences, dietary fiber consists of carbohydrates with a degree of polymerization DP of three or more that naturally occur in foods of plant origin and that are not digested and absorbed by the small intestine. The same definition goes well along with the term dietary prebiotics. They can also be processed into capsules for the purpose of microencapsulating probiotics.
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