useful and harmful effects of microorganisms pdf

Useful and harmful effects of microorganisms pdf

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What are bacteria and what do they do?

Beneficial Microorganisms: Countering Microbephobia

Beneficial and Detrimental Roles of Microorganisms

Bacteria and the gastrointestinal tract: beneficial and harmful effects

What are bacteria and what do they do?

Microbes are omnipresent in the biosphere, and their presence invariably affects the environment in which they grow. The effects of microbes on their environment can be beneficial or harmful or inapparent with regard to human measure or observation. The most significant effect of the microbes on earth is their ability to recycle the primary elements that make up all living systems, especially carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen N. Primary production involves photosynthetic organisms which take up CO 2 from the atmosphere and convert it to organic cellular material. The process is also called CO 2 fixation, and it accounts for a very large portion of organic carbon available for synthesis of cell material. Decomposition or biodegradation results in the breakdown of complex organic materials to other forms of carbon that can be used by other organisms. There is no naturally occurring organic compound that cannot be degraded by some microbe, although some synthetic compounds such as Teflon, plastics, insecticides, and pesticides are broken down very slowly or not at all.

It's that simple. Microbial communities make the essential elements of oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur available for other life on our planet. Without microbial decomposer communities, life would be smothered in dead organisms. Microorganisms also carry out almost half of the photosynthesis on our planet, increasing oxygen levels and lowering carbon dioxide Pedros-Alio, Both animals and plants are closely associated with microbial communities that make nutrients more available, provide protection from diseases, make essential vitamins, or a combination.

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Beneficial Microorganisms: Countering Microbephobia

Bacteria are microscopic, single-celled organisms that exist in their millions, in every environment, both inside and outside other organisms. Some bacteria are harmful, but most serve a useful purpose. They support many forms of life, both plant and animal, and they are used in industrial and medicinal processes. Bacteria are thought to have been the first organisms to appear on earth, about 4 billion years ago. The oldest known fossils are of bacteria-like organisms. Bacteria can use most organic and some inorganic compounds as food, and some can survive extreme conditions. A growing interest in the function of the gut microbiome is shedding new light on the roles bacteria play in human health.

Participate in learning and knowledge sharing. Forgot Password Register. Already have an account? Login Register. We have received your request successfully. Our counselor will call to confirm your booking. Microorganism are the organism which cannot be seen by naked eyes they can only be observed through a micro scope.

Bacteria are unique microorganisms that have a variety of physiological functions which are beneficial to human beings. However, bacteria can also be harmful and cause infections if translocated from the gastrointestinal tract to the epithelial tissue following surgery. The process of translocation can lead to surgical wounds becoming contaminated with gastrointestinal microbes such as Escherichia coli, Proteus or Klebsiella species. Bacteria can also cause severe gastrointestinal infections as a consequence of the ingestion of contaminated food. Food-borne bacterial infections can lead to serious consequences for the patient. Nurses managing the care of surgical patients and older people need to be aware of the physiological role that bacteria play but also the detrimental effects of bacterial translocation or ingestion particularly in older people, infants and people who are immunosuppressed. Abstract Bacteria are unique microorganisms that have a variety of physiological functions which are beneficial to human beings.

Beneficial and Detrimental Roles of Microorganisms

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Microorganisms are the dominant life forms on earth, are found in almost every conceivable environment, and are essential to sustaining life on this planet. There are five basic groups of microorganisms:. To get us started on our introduction of microorganisms we will go through the following Think-Pair-Share Questions.

Bacteria and the gastrointestinal tract: beneficial and harmful effects

Microorganisms occupy every small niche of the ecosystem and influence us in many ways. Their influence on human life is generally beneficial but at times can also be detrimental. The diversified role of microbes begins at their natural habitats. Elements as carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, sulphur, and phosphorus are basic requirement for life forms to survive. They are found in abundance in nature, though not necessarily in forms that organisms can use. Microorganisms mainly bacteria and fungi are primarily responsible for converting these elements into usable forms. Many bacteria and fungi utilize organic molecules releasing carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, which is used by algae, cyanobacteria, and higher plants to produce carbohydrates during photosynthesis.

Scientists have observed bacteria using microscopes to identify them. But it is the living processes that bacteria use and the wastes they give off that can be used either for human benefit or that cause disease. Scientists believe it was the chemical processes of early cyanobacteria, harnessing the energy from the sun, that released the oxygen that makes up our atmosphere. It took approximately 2 billion years for the bacteria to build up enough oxygen in the atmosphere to allow for the evolution of multi-cellular organisms. Bacteria have long been used by humans to create food products such as cheese, yoghurt, pickles, soy sauce and vinegar. We are also able to use bacteria to break down our sewage and to clean up oil spills.

Bacteria and the gastrointestinal tract: beneficial and harmful effects

Useful bacteria

They are found everywhere, in soil, air, water, on your skin and in your guts. Most of the time, when they are in the right place the majority of micro-organisms are not harmful to people and often do a lot of good such as breaking down waste and making bread. There is a huge variety of micro-organisms. They can work alone or in colonies. They can help you or hurt you. Most importantly, they make up the largest number of living organisms on the planet.

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