corruption ngos and development in nigeria pdf

Corruption ngos and development in nigeria pdf

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Corruption

What is Civil Society?

NGOs and Civil Corruption in Nigeria's Public Sphere

NGOs DIRECTORY

Corruption is a sensitive issue in the NGO world. Humanitarian actors need to understand what corruption is, recognise the forms it can take in humanitarian response, determine its true scale and better understand the conditions which lead to it. They also need to identify what mechanisms need to be put in place or strengthened to guard against corruption, even in the most difficult contexts.

Corruption is the single greatest obstacle preventing Nigeria from achieving its enormous potential. This paper proposes a new, context-specific framework for understanding a problem that will remain a focus of international and domestic Nigerian policy discussions for decades to come. Carnegie gratefully acknowledges support from the UK Department for International Development that helped make the writing of this paper possible. Corruption in Nigeria appears to be ubiquitous and takes many forms: from massive contract fraud to petty bribery; from straight-up embezzlement to complicated money laundering schemes; from pocketing the salaries of nonexistent workers to steering plum jobs to relatives and friends.

Corruption

Corruption is a sensitive issue in the NGO world. Humanitarian actors need to understand what corruption is, recognise the forms it can take in humanitarian response, determine its true scale and better understand the conditions which lead to it.

They also need to identify what mechanisms need to be put in place or strengthened to guard against corruption, even in the most difficult contexts. Mitigating against corruption is necessary if NGOs are to achieve both operational efficiency and accountability to their stakeholders.

The exact scale of the problem in the humanitarian aid sector is by its nature very difficult to determine, but is assumed to be at much lower levels than corruption in the private commercial sector. Another model of corruption takes into account the sources from which these risks emanate. Thus, while NGOs have little hope of eradicating contextual corruption, they can and should take steps to prevent or address corruption within their own organisations.

A number of factors which can lead to corruption in humanitarian operations have also been identified. These include lack of planning or even the impossibility of planning , the number of humanitarian actors present and the financial resources at stake. Finally, we should not forget that corruption exists in developed countries, as well as developing ones. The number of NGOs has grown exponentially over the last 20 years, as has the scale of resources available.

NGOs are often reluctant to talk about corruption for fear that it will lead to bad publicity and, consequently, a loss of funding. Working across borders to reach people in need can also give rise to allegations of corruption. The degree of confidentiality necessary to negotiate with those who control access can sometimes make transparency difficult to achieve.

Moving clandestinely across borders to access affected populations, as NGOs have done over the years in many conflict situations, can also raise questions about the legitimacy and legality of such action.

During the Afghan war in the s, for instance, the Soviet-allied government in Kabul did not want humanitarian actors in Afghanistan, particularly in areas controlled by resistance factions. When humanitarian personnel were captured and held hostage by Soviet or Afghan forces, NGOs argued that the illegality of their actions did not decrease their legitimacy. Humanitarian organisations cannot ignore the possible consequences of paying bribes or illegal taxes, especially in armed conflicts.

Choosing to pay an illegal tax or bribe in cash or in kind when confronted by armed guards at a checkpoint may enable the organisation to access people in need, but can be misinterpreted as corruption. Choosing not to pay can mean that humanitarian needs go unmet and that lives may be lost or the risk of harm increased for NGO staff.

NGOs must widen the scope of risk assessment to consider whether their programmes are vulnerable to corruption, such as theft or misappropriation of funds or in-kind goods by warring parties, real or perceived inequities in the distribution of aid and sexual abuse and exploitation of beneficiaries by agency or partner staff.

While every situation is different, in all cases NGOs have to balance their commitment to humanitarian principles with the need to control the risk of corruption so as to be truly accountable to their beneficiaries and donors. They should also be transparent with stakeholders about these challenges, and how they may affect decisions about whether or not to continue their work.

Some NGOs, particularly in Nordic countries, have chosen to publicise the results of corruption cases as well as the anti-corruption policies that they have implemented. For example, DanChurchAid DCA has a website page detailing corruption cases within the organisation and how they were dealt with. Being transparent about corruption does not appear to have negatively affected donor perceptions of DCA. Nonetheless, many NGOs believe that reporting cases of corruption is a major risk with potentially irreversible consequences for humanitarian organisations and their activities.

They fear that such cases can undermine their credibility and reputation particularly with the media , as well as discouraging public and private donations. Surprisingly, 11 of the 17 NGOs contacted refused to participate in this strictly confidential study.

The study confirmed what TI had already demonstrated: that humanitarian operations are most vulnerable to corruption in the procurement, transport and distribution of medicines, food, building materials and other consumables, particularly in large, rapid-onset emergencies. It is also important to remember that most emergency situations occur in countries where corruption is already widespread. The great majority of agency staff questioned in the study believed that corruption was primarily contextual in origin.

Over half had witnessed incidents of corruption, been offered bribes or asked to pay them or had been invited to participate in corrupt activities. NGOs need to ensure that they are well-informed about the nature and level of corruption in the countries in which they operate.

In Bangladesh, for instance, Forty-eight percent of those interviewed encountered corruption in the health service, primarily bribery and nepotism.

The most obvious examples were doctors charging for prescriptions and referring patients to their private clinics, and patients having to pay extra fees for tests in government hospitals. Community action at field level resulted in the creation of Committees of Concerned Citizens CCCs , which acted as watchdogs on local governance and attitudes in both the education and health sectors.

This led to dramatic improvements in the quality of care, and significantly reduced bribery, nepotism and negligence. At the international level, TI has just finalised a practical guide to identifying the weak links in the humanitarian response system in order to improve awareness and as far as possible prevent corrupt practices. The guide also devotes significant attention to how to monitor and evaluate anti-corruption measures.

Several NGOs, notably from English-speaking countries, participated in the development of this document, which is more technical than political. In , the Ethics and Transparency Committee of Coordination Sud drafted a charter of good practice. NGOs belonging to the committee are required to have their activities financial and operational audited each year by a certified auditor.

In addition, most French NGOs have established internal control mechanisms which enable information from the field to be verified and cross-checked.

One of the lessons of the MDM study, which has also been confirmed by TI, is that it is extremely important for field teams to have appropriate and clearly defined intervention strategies, good knowledge of the field context and training on how to identify and reduce the risks of corruption, particularly operational risk factors associated with the procurement, transport, storage and distribution of relief goods.

As a complex global phenomenon with significant local consequences, corruption is a critical aspect of humanitarian thinking and action. Good governance and transparency are at the heart of NGO legitimacy. We need an open debate on the risks of corruption and how to address them, without undermining donor funding to and beneficiary confidence in NGOs. As well as strictly operational considerations, corruption constitutes an important ethical and political challenge for humanitarian NGOs.

The leaders are corrupt, the needy are corrupt, then how can an NGO prevent corruption? Unless people help themselves and fight against corruption, little could be done. You must be logged in to post a comment. Download this issue. Humanitarian accountability. Reflections on the accountability revolution. United we stand? Collective accountability in the humanitarian sector. Only as strong as our weakest link: can the humanitarian system be collectively accountable to affected populations?

Real Time Evaluations: contributing to system-wide learning and accountability. NGO certification: time to bite the bullet? Accountability - don't forget your staff. Humanitarian leadership and accountability: contribution or contradiction? The role of donors in enhancing quality and accountability in humanitarian aid. Accountability: the DEC's experience. A framework for strengthening partnering accountability and effectiveness. Corruption in the NGO world: what it is and how to tackle it.

Delivering communications in an emergency response: observations from Haiti. Local perspectives of the Haiti earthquake response. NGO accountability: findings from South Sudan. Foreign currency Photo credit: epSos. What is corruption? Corruption and humanitarian aid: new dilemmas? Still a taboo? Accountability initiatives At the international level, TI has just finalised a practical guide to identifying the weak links in the humanitarian response system in order to improve awareness and as far as possible prevent corrupt practices.

Conclusion One of the lessons of the MDM study, which has also been confirmed by TI, is that it is extremely important for field teams to have appropriate and clearly defined intervention strategies, good knowledge of the field context and training on how to identify and reduce the risks of corruption, particularly operational risk factors associated with the procurement, transport, storage and distribution of relief goods.

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What is Civil Society?

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That corruption abounds in Nigeria is an indisputable fact Agbiboa, The corrupt man is everywhere, the man on the street, the man next door, the man in the church or mosque, the man in the market or the departmental store, the policeman on beat patrol and the soldier at the check point Okadigbo, Corruption in Nigeria has passed the alarming and entered the fatal stage Achebe, The rate of corruption is so high that the Federal House of Representative in Nigeria is now contemplating hanging for treasury looters as a solution to corruption Ige, Corruption is a clog in the wheel of progress in Nigeria and has incessantly frustrated the realization of noble national goals, despite the enormous natural and human resources in Nigeria Ijewereme, Today Nigerians continue to languish in extreme poverty and yet Nigeria is one of the few African countries with abundant natural and human resource endowments.

NGOs and Civil Corruption in Nigeria's Public Sphere

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NGOs DIRECTORY

Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. The United States firmly believes that a robust civil society — independent of state control or government involvement- is necessary for democracy to thrive. From the earliest days of U. Civil society is a source of all-encompassing ideas, promoting everything from transparency and free expression, reversing inequality, and rescuing our environment. Civil society in the United States encompasses a broad range of organizations that allow individuals to achieve their social, economic, and political aspirations by organizing themselves, unhindered, according to their own interests, needs, and priorities.

Corruption is a form of dishonesty or criminal offense undertaken by a person or organization entrusted with a position of authority, to acquire illicit benefit or abuse power for one's private gain. Corruption may include many activities including bribery and embezzlement , though it may also involve practices that are legal in many countries. Corruption is most commonplace in kleptocracies , oligarchies , narco-states and mafia states. Corruption and crime are endemic sociological occurrences which appear with regular frequency in virtually all countries on a global scale in varying degree and proportion. Individual nations each allocate domestic resources for the control and regulation of corruption and crime.

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Adios, Senor Becker… La sangre de Cristo, la сора de la salvacion. Терпкий аромат красного вина ударил в ноздри Беккера, когда падре Херрера опустил перед ним серебряную, отполированную миллионами рук чашу. Немного рано для алкогольных напитков, подумал Беккер, наклоняясь. Когда серебряный кубок оказался на уровне его глаз, возникло какое-то движение, и в полированной поверхности смутно отразилась приближающаяся фигура. Беккер заметил металлический блеск в тот самый миг, когда убийца поднимал пистолет, и, как спринтер, срывающийся с места при звуке стартового выстрела, рванулся. Насмерть перепуганный священник упал, чаша взлетела вверх, и красное вино разлилось по белому мрамору пола. Монахи и служки у алтаря бросились врассыпную, а Беккер тем временем перемахнул через ограждение.

Скоро Нуматек станет единственным обладателем единственного экземпляра Цифровой крепости. Другого нет и не. Двадцать миллионов долларов - это очень большие деньги, но если принять во внимание, за что они будут заплачены, то это сущие гроши. ГЛАВА 19 - А вдруг кто-то еще хочет заполучить это кольцо? - спросила Сьюзан, внезапно заволновавшись.  - А вдруг Дэвиду грозит опасность.

ТРАНСТЕКСТ устроил себе перерыв. - Перерыв? - Бринкерхофф не был в этом уверен. Он достаточно долго проработал бок о бок с директором и знал, что перерыв не относился к числу поощряемых им действий - особенно когда дело касалось ТРАНСТЕКСТА. Фонтейн заплатил за этого бегемота дешифровки два миллиарда и хотел, чтобы эти деньги окупились сполна. Каждая минута простоя ТРАНСТЕКСТА означала доллары, спущенные в канализацию.

1 comments

  • Ulrike A. 26.05.2021 at 08:07

    Download Citation | Corruption, NGOs, and Development in Nigeria | This article examines corruption in Nigeria's development sector.

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