File Name: x and y theory by douglas mcgregor .zip
In his book, The Human Side of Enterprise , McGregor proposed two theories by which managers perceive and address employee motivation. He referred to these opposing motivational methods as Theory X and Theory Y management. Essentially, Theory X assumes that the primary source of employee motivation is monetary, with security as a strong second. Under Theory X, one can take a hard or soft approach to getting results. The hard approach to motivation relies on coercion, implicit threats, micromanagement, and tight controls— essentially an environment of command and control.
Theory X is more suitable for occupations with manual labor or workers in the jobs associated with assembling of parts and the jobs where the workers want to fulfill their lower order needs of the hierarchy. From this reason of Theory X self-fulfilling prophecy nature, McGregor proposed another theory which is alternative to the Theory X i.. Theory X and Theory Y are the two theories of motivation suitable for the workplace; the essence of these theories states that how two different managerial styles motivate the workers on the basis of two opposing assumptions. Theory X Theory X assumes that employees dislike working, naturally, they are unmotivated, ambitionless, non-initiative and dislike responsibilities.. He avoided descriptive labels and simply called the theories Theory X and Theory Y. Missouri Drivers License Expiration Date.
McGregor argued that these assumptions fall into two broad categories - Theory X and Theory Y. These findings were detailed in The. Human Side of Enterprise,.
Theory X and Theory Y are still referred to commonly in the field of management and motivation, and whilst more recent studies have questioned the rigidity of the model, Mcgregor's X-Y Theory remains a valid basic principle from which to develop positive management style and techniques. McGregor's XY Theory remains central to organisational development, and to improving organisational culture. McGregor's X-Y theory is a salutary and simple reminder of the natural rules for managing people, which under the pressure of day-to-day business are all too easily forgotten. Perhaps the most noticeable aspects of McGregor's XY Theory - and the easiest to illustrate - are found in the behaviours of autocratic managers and organisations which use autocratic management styles. Typically characteristics for an X-Theory manager are most or all of these:.
He did not imply that workers would be one type or the other. Rather, he saw the two theories as two extremes - with a whole spectrum of possible behaviours in between. The management implications for Theory X workers were that, to achieve organisational objectives, a business would need to impose a management system of coercion, control and punishment.