types of plumbing pipes and fittings pdf

Types of plumbing pipes and fittings pdf

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The Pros and Cons of Different Types of Plumbing Pipes

What is Pipe Fittings?

Different Types of Pipe Fittings in Plumbing System

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For the average homeowner, knowing which plumbing fitting goes where can be a challenge. There are many different types, sizes, and materials to consider. Which ones you need depends on the job. An adapter has male and female ends, the male having threads on the outside and the female on the inside. There are three types of adapters: male, female, and straight-threaded.

If one of the ends of the adapter is without threads, it needs to be welded or soldered onto the pipe. Adapters are essential when it comes to extending or terminating pipe runs. Leak-free adapters can withstand high pressure, commonly used in gas and water pipes.

They also provide a smooth transition from piping to tubing systems. It connects pipes to appliances such as water heaters , and connects two straight pipe runs.

Union fittings are made up of three parts: a nut, a female end, and a male end. When buying a union fitting, consider which type and size you need. Barb fittings are generally male at one end and have a tapered and ridged cone at the other.

As the barb fitting is inserted, the hose or tube will first expand and then relax. When the tube or hose relaxes and goes back to its original size, the connection is sealed and becomes difficult to undo. Barbed fittings are generally used in gas, air, and fluid control applications in low pressure.

For water connections, plastic barbs are used for cold water. Brass barbs are used to carry hot water. Before buying a barb fitting, consider the following:. Couplings are very similar to unions.

Couplings can be used to connect two pipes of the same size and diameter. Un-threaded couplings are used for either copper soldering or plastic solvent welding. As the name might suggest, crosses are four-way fittings, a combination of two tees see below. They consist of one inlet and three outlets, and these often have a solvent-welded socket or female-threaded ends. The reason being that they can stress pipes as temperature changes due to the four open ways.

Tees are a three-way fitting. They look like a coupling with an outlet in the middle. Saddle tees look very similar to a real saddle. These are most often used in irrigation systems when you need to add a new sprinkler line.

Once the glue is settled, a new hole is drilled. The angling of the branch is designed to reduce turbulence and friction. They connect vertical drain pipes to horizontal ones. A flange is a round fitting used to connect pipes. The pipes are either threaded or welded to the middle of the flange, and then sealed together.

The holes on the outside are used for bolts. Flanges are mainly used in industrial applications due to their ability to handle high pressure. You can also find flanges in residential pump systems. At home, PVC flanges are used when mounting toilets to the floor.

Elbow fittings are curved and are mainly used to change flow directions. These are mostly produced in 45 and degree angles and can be sweated or threaded. The ends of the elbow fitting can be made for butt welding, threading or socketed. A reducing elbow is when the two ends differ in size. Caps are used to cover the end of an open pipe and are liquid- and gas-tight.

The cap can be attached to the pipe end by interior threading female , or solvent-welded socket. The outside of a cap can be square, round, rectangular, I- or U-shaped; some will even have a handgrip. These are usually threaded to allow the plug to be removed for future use of the pipe. Bushings look like small screws.

These can be threaded on the inside and outside; however, this is not always the case. Bushing fittings are smaller than unions and couplings, and are, therefore, often used in the same situations. The sleeve is usually made of rubber and is inserted into a stainless steel clamp.

The clamp compresses the rubber, which creates a tight seal. A valve is used to regulate or stop the flow of gas or liquid.

Valves are generally categorized by application, such as:. A clean-out fitting features removable parts that allow access to drains without the need to undo plumbing fixtures. Clean-outs will enable an auger a type of drill to enter and clean a clogged drain.

Larger plumbing systems feature several clean-outs that will be placed at regular intervals. Combination tees have a gradually curving central branch. The curve also makes it easier for a plumber to push a snake tool through. This type of tee is mainly used in pressurized hydronic heating systems. Installing a diverter tee can be a challenge. It features directional marking that must be followed. Plumbing fittings can be purchased at your local hardware and supply stores.

Fittings are what bring pipes together with the different applications in our homes. Some are designed to redirect, others for length extension. Size is another crucial factor. Fittings are generally measured by the inside diameter ID and outside diameter OD of the corresponding connection. This is usually measured in inches or millimeters. The inside diameter refers to the hollow portion of the fitting. Outside diameter includes the thickness of the wall 1. Plumbing fixtures are connected to the plumbing system to deliver and drain water.

This could be bathtubs, showers, kitchen sinks, and faucets. The materials used are rated by the American Society for Testing and Materials. This rating system can be used for pressurized fixtures like cold and hot water distributions, potable water and irrigation systems. It can also be used for non-pressurized installations like drainage, sewage, and storm drain systems. Older homes before used cast iron or galvanized steel pipes for their drain, waste and vent systems DWV.

DWV systems are designed to remove wastewater while preventing the flow of sewer gasses from entering homes. Today, homes are fitted with PVC polyvinyl chloride and copper pipes. These materials are sturdy, long-lasting, and most importantly, easy to install 2. Using the right material can mean the difference between worry-free and leak-filled.

Knowing which materials go where can help you to find the right fittings for your home quickly. Pipes can be easy to shop for — all you need to know is the length and material. However, fittings are a completely different story. The material also plays an essential role since the wrong choice could lead to leaks or malfunctions within your system. Do you do your plumbing at home? Which type of fitting do you prefer to use?

Let us know in the comments section below. Peter Gray. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Sensible Digs. Table of Contents. You can do this by asking yourself a simple question: Why do I need it? What Are Plumbing Fixtures? As a retired plumber, Peter now spends his time teaching others how they can fix leaks, replace faucets, and make home improvements on a budget. Related Reading Categories Water Heating.

Smith Water Heater Reviews Guide. Navien Water Heater Reviews Guide.

The Pros and Cons of Different Types of Plumbing Pipes

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Fresh water comes in under pressure to fixtures such as sinks , bathtubs, showers and toilet tanks. Waste water is expelled from the home through drain pipes and from there into the sewer or septic system. Vent stacks help the water drain and vent sewer gases to the outside. Here are some of the most common:. Adaptors connect pipes that are not the same type. Because an adaptor can be male or female on one end, it can turn a pipe male or female. If ends are non-threaded, they are left to be welded, soldered or glued to the pipe.

For the average homeowner, knowing which plumbing fitting goes where can be a challenge. There are many different types, sizes, and materials to consider. Which ones you need depends on the job. An adapter has male and female ends, the male having threads on the outside and the female on the inside. There are three types of adapters: male, female, and straight-threaded.

What is Pipe Fittings?

A fitting or adapter is used in pipe systems to connect straight sections of pipe or tube , adapt to different sizes or shapes, and for other purposes such as regulating or measuring fluid flow. Fittings especially uncommon types require money, time, materials, and tools to install, and are an important part of piping and plumbing systems. Standard codes are followed when designing or manufacturing a piping system. Organizations which promulgate piping standards include:. The B

Fittings, especially noncommon types, can be expensive, and require time, materials, and tools to install, so they are a non-trivial part of piping and plumbing systems. Valves are technically fittings, but are usually discussed separately. Materials for fittings The 'bodies' of fittings for pipe and tubing are most often of the same base material as the pipe or tubing being connected, e. However, any material that is allowed by code may be used, but must be compatible with the other materials in the system, the fluids being transported, and the temperatures and pressures inside and outside of the system. For example, brass-bodied fittings are common in otherwise copper piping and plumbing systems.

Ppr Pipe Catalogue Pdf. Products appearing in this catalogue may be covered by one or more of the following US Patent Nos. Airport North Rd, Embakasi P. Alasco Vinyl Corporation is one of the leaders in the field of manufacturing and distributing PVC pipes. Pipes of thermoplastic, pipe fittings elements for pipes, laying DIN 16 Pipes connections and fittings for pressure pipes of PP-R General quality requirements, testing.

Different Types of Pipe Fittings in Plumbing System

Plumbing is all about pipes and fittings. Pipes establish the runs that bring or take water, with fittings controlling and manipulating the flow. Pipes are simple enough: they're straight, and come in different sizes. Pick the right material and length, and you're pretty much good to go. Fittings - for a plumber - are much the same. But for the average homeowner, there are a lot of fittings.

Pipe Fittings are Piping component that helps in Changes the direction of the flow such as elbows, tees. Changes the size of the pipe such as reducers, reducing tees. Connect different components such as couplings and stop the flows such as Caps. There are different types of pipe fitting used in piping.

Guide to Fitting Types & Materials

The Constructor

Since plumbing was first invented, the material used for piping has been an important factor. In the early days of plumbing in the ancient world, lead and clay piping was used to transport water to homes and public buildings. In the early twentieth century, when plumbing began to move into homes in the U. Lead piping was also common and was the material of choice for plumbing pipes until World War II. However, as the understanding of lead poisoning increased, the popularity of lead piping fell off, particularly for water that was meant to be potable. After World War II, galvanized screw piping gained favor as the material of choice for plumbing pipes inside the home, and a few decades later, in the s, copper became more popular.


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