File Name: sigmund freud totem and taboo .zip
The cultural anthropologist Alfred L.
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It is very useful, then, to have this new translation of the pioneer work. Nearly all his work was well translated into English, with one glaring exception: Totem and Taboo. Now, at last. The book itself is one of the most fascinating and characteristic, and also of the most speculative, in the whole Freudian canon.
No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. I and the third and fourth in Vol. II All four essays were collected and published under the new title of Totem und Tabu in Vienna, Hugo Heller.
None of these later editions show any variations of substance from the original one. An Eng- lish translation by A. Brill was published in New York in London, The book has also been translated into Hun- garian , Spanish , Portuguese n. Particulars of all works referred to in the text will be found in a list at the end of the volume. The responsibility for any matter printed between square brackets is mine.
My grateful thanks are due to Miss Anna Freud for her critical revision of the entire translation, and to Mr. Roger Money-Kyrle for reading through the typescript and making many helpful suggestions. Jung, and I need not mention those which are necessarily characteristic of pion- eering work; but others require a word of explanation. They seek to bridge the gap between students of such subjects as social anthropology, philology and folklore on the one hand, and psycho-analysts on the other.
It will be found that the two principal themes from which the title of this little book is derived—totems and taboos—have not received the same treatment.
The analysis of taboos is put for- ward as an assured and exhaustive attempt at the solution of the problem. Totem- ism, on the contrary, is something alien to our contemporary feelings—a religio-social institution which has been long aban- doned as an actuality and replaced by newer forms. The close connection between totems and taboos carries us a step further along the path towards the hypothesis presented in these pages; and if in the end that hypothesis bears a highly improbable appearance, that need be no argument against the possibility of its approximating more or less closely to the reality which it is so hard to reconstruct.
Werke, 12, It was then stated that a Hebrew translation was about to be published in Jerusa- lem by Stybel. Actually it was not published there until , by Kirjcith Zefer. The author hopes, however, that he will be at one with his readers in the conviction that unprejudiced science cannot remain a stranger to the spirit of the new Jewry.
But apart from this, in a certain sense he is still our con- temporary. There are men still living who, as we believe, stand very near to primitive man, far nearer than we do, and whom we therefore regard as his direct heirs and representatives.
Such is our view of those whom we describe as savages or half-savages; and their mental life must have a peculiar interest for us if we are right in seeing in it a well-preserved picture of an early stage of our own development.
For external as well as for internal reasons, I shall select as the basis of this comparison the tribes which have been described by anthropologists as the most backward and miserable of savages, the aborigines of Australia, the youngest continent, in whose fauna, too, we can still observe much that is archaic and that has perished elsewhere.
The Australian aborigines are regarded as a distinct race, showing neither physical nor linguistic relationship with their nearest neighbours, the Melanesian, Polynesian and Malayan peoples. They do not build houses or permanent shelters; they do not cultivate the soil; they keep no domesticated animals except the dog; they are not even acquainted with the art of making pottery. It is highly doubtful whether any religion, in the shape of a worship of higher beings, can be attributed to them.
The tribes in the interior of the continent, who have to struggle against the hardest conditions of existence as a result of the scarcity of water, appear to be more primitive in all respects than those living near the coast. We should certainly not expect that the sexual life of these poor, naked cannibals would be moral in our sense or that their sexual instincts would be subjected to any great degree of restric- tion.
Indeed, their whole social organ- ization seems to serve that purpose or to have been brought into relation with its attainment. Australian tribes fall into smaller divisions, or clans, each of which is named after its totem. What is a totem? It is as a rule an animal whether edible and harmless or dangerous and feared and more rarely a plant or a natural phenomenon such as rain or water , which stands in a peculiar relation to the whole clan.
The totemic character is inherent, not in some individual animal or entity, but in all the individuals of a given class. From time to time festivals are celebrated at which the clansmen represent or imitate the motions and attributes of their totem in ceremonial dances. The totem may be inherited either through the female or through the male line. It is possible that originally the former method of descent prevailed everywhere and was only sub- sequently replaced by the latter.
The Secret of the Totem Totemic institutions were, or still are, to be observed in operation, not only among the Australians, but also among the North American Indians, among the peoples of Oceania, in the East Indies and in a large part of Africa.
It may also be inferred from certain vestigial remains, for which it is otherwise hard to account, that totemism existed at one time among the Aryan and Semitic aboriginal races of Europe and Asia.
Many investigators are therefore inclined to regard it as a necessary phase of human development which has been passed through universally. How did prehistoric men come to adopt totems? How, that is, did they come to make the fact of their being descended from one animal or another the basis of their social obligations and, as we shall see presently, of their sexual restric- tions?
It is my intention to devote a special study before long to the problem of totemism, in which I shall attempt to solve it by the help of a psycho-analytic line of approach.
See the fourth essay in this volume. Not only, however, is the theory of totemism a matter of dispute; the facts themselves are scarcely capable of being expressed in general terms as I have tried to do in the text above. There is scarcely a statement which does not call for exceptions or contradictions. But it must not be forgotten that even the most primitive and conservative races are in some sense ancient races and have a long past history behind them during which their original conditions of life have been subject to much development and distortion.
Strictly enforced as it is, this prohibition is a remarkable one. There is nothing in the concept or attributes of the totem which I have so far mentioned to lead us to anticipate it; so that it is hard to understand how it has become involved in the totemic system.
We cannot, therefore, feel surprised that some investiga- tors actually suppose that exogamy had originally—in the earliest times and in its true meaning—nothing to do with totemism, but became attached to it without there being any underlying connection at some time when marriage restrictions became necessary. It is avenged in the most energetic fashion by the whole clan, as though it were a question of averting some danger that threatened the whole community or some guilt that was pressing upon it.
In the Ta-ta-thi tribe, New South Wales, in the rare cases which occur, the man is 1 [This sentence is in spaced type in the original. Where, for instance, descent is through the female line, if a man of the Kangaroo totem marries a woman of the Emu totem, all the children, both boys and girls, belong to the Emu clan.
The totem regulation will therefore make it impossible for a son of this marriage to have incestuous intercourse with his mother or sisters, who are Emus like himself. It makes sexual intercourse impossible for a man with all the women of his own clan that is to say with a number of women who are not his blood-relatives by treating them all as though they were his blood-relatives.
If the totem descended through the male line, however, the Kangaroo father would be prohibited from incest with his daughters since all his chil- dren would be Kangaroos , whereas the son would be free to commit incest with his mother. These implications of totem prohibitions suggest that descent through the female line is older than that through the male, since there are grounds for thinking that totem prohibitions were principally directed against the incestuous desires of the son.
It may be gathered from this, however, that the part played by the totem as common ancestor is taken very seriously. All those who are descended from the same totem are blood- relations. They form a single family, and within that family even the most distant degree of kinship is regarded as an absolute hindrance to sexual intercourse.
We see, then, that these savages have an unusually great horror of incest, or are sensitive on the subject to an unusual degree, and that they combine this with a peculiarity which remains obscure to us—of replacing real blood-relationship by totem kinship.
This latter contrast must not, however, be too much exaggerated, and we must remember that the totem prohibitions include that against real incest as a special case. The riddle of how it came about that the real family was replaced by the totem clan must perhaps remain unsolved till the nature of the totem itself can be explained. At the same time, it is to be observed that if there were a certain degree of freedom of sexual intercourse outside marriage, blood-relationship, and con- sequently the prevention of incest, would become so uncertain that the prohibition would stand in need of a wider basis.
Linguistic usage in these Australian tribes1 exhibits a peculi- arity which is no doubt relevant here. For the terms used by them to express the various degrees of kinship do not denote a relation between two individuals but between an individual and a group. This is what L. Thus the kinship terms which two Australians apply to each other do not necessarily indicate any consanguinity, as ours would do: they represent social rather than physical relationships.
Though this use of words strikes us as so puzzling, it is easily explained if we look on it as a survival of the marriage institu- tion which the Rev. The children of such a group marriage would then justly regard one another as brothers and sisters though they were not all born of the same mother and would regard all the men in the group as their fathers.
Indeed, according to Spencer and Gillen  , a certain form of group marriage exists to this day in the Urabunna and Dieri tribes. For there are few races in Australia in which the totem barrier is the sole prohibition. Each of these phratries is exogamous and comprises a number of totem clans.
The following diagram represents the typical organization of an Australian tribe and corresponds to the actual situation in a very large number of cases: Here the twelve totem clans are divided into four sub- phratries and two phratries. All the divisions are exogamous. The result and therefore the purpose of these arrangements cannot be doubted: they bring about a still further restriction on the choice of marriage and on sexual lib- erty. Let us suppose that each clan contains an equal number of members.
Then, if only the twelve totem clans existed, each member of a clan would have his choice among 11 —— of all the 12 women in the tribe. The existence of the two phratries reduces 6 1 his choice to —— 12 or —2, for then a man of totem a can only marry a woman of totems 1 to 6.
With the introduction of the four 3 1 subphratries his choice is still further reduced to ——12 or —4, for in that case a man of totem a is restricted in his choice of a wife to a woman of totems 4, 5 or 6. The historical relation between the marriage-classes of which in some tribes there are as many as eight and the totem clans is completely obscure.
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Because at first I was sure she did him? Rosa is the oldest, wanting to pull her down. The Mercedes would come later, clambering along its top as Maximov kept working the crank, diminished, you need an idea of how concepts break down into smaller concepts. The knife was blown out of the hole. A hush fell over the men as he stood before them. Amanda picked up the receiver of the pay phone.
Moreover, in a certain sense he is still our contemporary: there are people whom we still consider more closely related to primitive man than to ourselves, in whom we therefore recognize the direct descendants and representatives of earlier man. We can thus judge the so-called savage and semi-savage races; their psychic life assumes a peculiar interest for us, for we can recognize in their psychic life a well-preserved, early stage of our own development. For outer as well as for inner reasons, I am choosing for this comparison those tribes which have been described by ethnographists as being most backward and wretched: the aborigines of the youngest continent, namely Australia, whose fauna has also preserved for us so much that is archaic and no longer to be found elsewhere. The aborigines of Australia are looked upon as a peculiar race which shows neither physical nor linguistic relationship with its nearest neighbours, the Melanesian, Polynesian and Malayan races. They do not build houses or permanent huts; they do not cultivate the soil or keep any domestic animals except dogs; and they do not even know the art of pottery.
ГЛАВА 16 - Кольцо? - не веря своим ушам, переспросила Сьюзан. - С руки Танкадо исчезло кольцо. - Да.
Жила. - Да. Кошачья жила. Из нее делают струны для ракеток. - Как мило, - вздохнула .
Стратмор сурово посмотрел на. - Этот алгоритм создал один самых блестящих умов в криптографии. Сьюзан пришла в еще большее смятение: самые блестящие умы в криптографии работают в ее отделе, и уж она-то наверняка хоть что-нибудь услышала бы об этом алгоритме. - Кто? - требовательно сказала. - Уверен, ты догадаешься сама, - сказал Стратмор. - Он не очень любит Агентство национальной безопасности. - Какая редкость! - саркастически парировала Сьюзан.
Японские иероглифы. Стратмор покачал головой. - Это и мне сразу пришло в голову. Но послушай: канадец сказал, что буквы не складывались во что-то вразумительное. Японские иероглифы не спутаешь с латиницей. Он сказал, что выгравированные буквы выглядят так, будто кошка прошлась по клавишам пишущей машинки. - Коммандер, не думаете же вы… - Сьюзан расхохоталась.
Так ты со мной, Сьюзан? - спросил .