resistors in series and parallel pdf

Resistors in series and parallel pdf

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Resistors in Series and Parallel

Introduction

Series and Parallel Circuits

Series Circuits

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When they are placed in these configurations it is important to be able to calculate the overall resistance. This can be achieved quite easily when the right formulas are used - there are simple formulas for both series and parallel resistors. As electronic circuit design is undertaken, or whether it is for another reason, being able to calculate the resistance of combinations of resistors can be very useful. In electronic circuits, combinations of resistors can be reduced to series elements and parallel elements, although when other electronic components are used the combinations can be more complicated. However in many instances calculating the series and parallel resistance values is of great importance.

Resistors in Series and Parallel

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In the previous part we identified how the resistance of a circuit can be calculated when one or more resistors are combined in series. In this section we develop our knowledge of circuit analysis by examining parallel combination of resistors. When two or more resistors are connected between identical points in a circuit the resistors are said to be in parallel. In this situation the current has a number of different possible pathways, for example in the circuit below which represents two resistors in parallel there are two possible pathways for the current to flow. Each parallel current path is called a branch and if additional branches are added then more possible current paths are created eg. In this circuit all the connecting points along the bottom rail are equivalent to B and all the connecting points along the top rail equivalent to point A.

Introduction

Resistors in Series and Parallel Introduction Direct current DC circuits are characterized by the quantities current, voltage and resistance. Current is the rate of flow of charge. The SI unit is the ampere A. By convention the direction of the current is the direction of flow of charge, even though in metallic conductors the current is due to flow of negative charge electrons in the opposite direction. Because of conservation of charge, the current is the same at all points in a single loop circuit. At a branch point in a circuit, where the conducting path splits into two or more paths, the total current into a branch point equals the total current out of that point.

Most circuits have more than one resistor. If several resistors are connected together and connected to a battery, the current supplied by the battery depends on the equivalent resistance of the circuit. The equivalent resistance of a combination of resistors depends on both their individual values and how they are connected. In a series circuit , the output current of the first resistor flows into the input of the second resistor; therefore, the current is the same in each resistor. In a parallel circuit , all of the resistor leads on one side of the resistors are connected together and all the leads on the other side are connected together. In the case of a parallel configuration, each resistor has the same potential drop across it, and the currents through each resistor may be different, depending on the resistor.

The total resistance in the circuit with resistors connected in series is equal to the sum of the individual resistances. Most circuits have more than one component, called a resistor, that limits the flow of charge in the circuit. A measure of this limit on charge flow is called resistance. The simplest combinations of resistors are the series and parallel connections. The total resistance of a combination of resistors depends on both their individual values and how they are connected. Resistors are in series whenever the flow of charge, or the current, must flow through components sequentially.

Series and Parallel Circuits

The goal of series-parallel resistor circuit analysis is to be able to determine all voltage drops, currents, and power dissipations in a circuit. The general strategy to accomplish this goal is as follows:. This may sound like an intimidating process, but its much easier understood through example than through description. In the example circuit above, R 1 and R 2 are connected in a simple parallel arrangement, as are R 3 and R 4. Having been identified, these sections need to be converted into equivalent single resistors , and the circuit re-drawn:.

The amount of current in a series circuit is the same through any component in the circuit. This is because there is only one path for current flow in a series circuit. Because electric charge flows through conductors like marbles in a tube, the rate of flow marble speed at any point in the circuit tube at any specific point in time must be equal. From the way that the 9-volt battery is arranged, we can tell that the current in this circuit will flow in a clockwise direction, from point 1 to 2 to 3 to 4 and back to 1. However, we have one source of voltage and three resistances.

Series Circuits

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Introduction

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