origins and ecological consequences of pollen specialization pdf

Origins and ecological consequences of pollen specialization pdf

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A brief review of monolecty in bees and benefits of a broadened definition

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Monolecty in bees was defined a century ago for those species that consistently collect pollen only from the same single species of floral host. Here, I review its multiple problems and suggest that its utility would improve if we apply the term monolecty to those bees species that use a single genus not species of flowering host. About a century ago, the bee naturalist Charles Robertson concluded that bee species differed in their pollen foraging predilections. That insight arose from his years of exhaustive bee surveys around his home in Carlinville, Illinois USA, during which he methodically recorded the floral hosts at which he caught bee species Robertson Importantly, he recorded foraging behavior as well, which led him to group bee species according to the taxonomic range of plants from which females collected pollen Robertson There ensued some lively debate about terminology, causality, and evolution with a contemporary bee enthusiast, John Lovell Robertson divided the spectrum of pollen host use by bees into polylecty taxonomic generalists and taxonomic specialization oligolecty and monolecty.

For honey bees Apis mellifera , colony maintenance and growth are highly dependent on worker foragers obtaining sufficient resources from flowering plants year round. Despite the importance of floral diversity for proper bee nutrition, urban development has drastically altered resource availability and diversity for these important pollinators. Therefore, understanding the floral resources foraged by bees in urbanized areas is key to identifying and promoting plants that enhance colony health in those environments. In this study, we identified the pollen foraged by bees in four developed areas of the U. To do this, pollen was collected every month for up to one year from colonies located in developed urban and suburban sites in California, Texas, Florida, and Michigan, except during months of pollen dearth or winter. Homogenized pollen samples were acetolyzed and identified microscopically to the lowest taxonomic level possible. Once identified, each pollen type was classified into a frequency category based on its overall relative abundance.

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Aizen, M. Aguiar, J. Biesmeijer, L. Garibaldi, D. Inouye, C. Jung, D. Martins, R.

A brief review of monolecty in bees and benefits of a broadened definition

Minckley Lab. Danforth, B. Princeton University Press.

The plant kingdom produces an extraordinary diversity of secondary metabolites and the majority of the literature supports a defensive ecological role for them, particularly against invertebrate herbivores antagonists. Plants also produce secondary compounds in floral nectar and pollen and these are often similar to those produced for defense against invertebrates elsewhere in the plant. This is largely because the chemical armoury within a single plant species is typically restricted to a few biochemical pathways and limited chemical products but how their occurrence in floral rewards is regulated to mediate both defence and enhanced pollination is not well understood.

2 comments

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  • Nicon G. 31.05.2021 at 00:58

    Plant reproduction by means of flowers has long been thought to promote the success and diversification of angiosperms.

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