compare and contrast theory x and theory y pdf

Compare and contrast theory x and theory y pdf

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Key Differences Between Theory X and Theory Y

Content: Theory X Vs Theory Y

Theory X and Theory Y

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Key Differences Between Theory X and Theory Y

Professor Douglas McGregor highlighted that there is a significant relationship between motivation and leadership among people. He summarized the findings of the Hawthorn experiment by introducing both theory X and theory Y. It is important to note that both theory X and theory Y are based on the argument that there are specific approaches to managing people based on their traits. Theory X is formulated on the traditional approach to human behavior, which states that severe form of leadership must be used to persuade workers towards achieving the organizational goals. Some of the assumptions adopted in this theory include;. This is the modern approach to management, which emphasizes on a harmonious corporation between employees and control of the company.

Motivation implies the act of stimulating or inspiring subordinates to pursue the desired course of action. It is something that makes people act or behave in a particular manner. Based on the premises concerning human behaviour, Prof. Douglas McGregor put forward a theory of motivation, called as theory X and theory Y. Theory X is a conventional approach to motivation, based on negative assumptions. On the other extreme, Theory Y is diametrically opposite to theory X which shows the modern and dynamic approach to individuals and relies on the assumptions that are practical in nature.

Content: Theory X Vs Theory Y

Our management style is firmly influenced by our beliefs and assumptions about what encourages members of our team like: If we believe that our team members dislike work, then we tend towards an authoritarian style of management. However, if we assume that employees take pride in doing a good job, we tend to adopt a more participative style. This theory believes that employees are naturally unmotivated and dislike working, and this encourages an authoritarian style of management. According to this theory, management must firmly intervene to get things done. McGregor observed that X-type workers are in fact mostly in minority, and yet in mass organizations, such as large scale production environment, X Theory management may be needed and can be unavoidable.

In his book, The Human Side of Enterprise , McGregor proposed two theories by which managers perceive and address employee motivation. He referred to these opposing motivational methods as Theory X and Theory Y management. Essentially, Theory X assumes that the primary source of employee motivation is monetary, with security as a strong second. Under Theory X, one can take a hard or soft approach to getting results. The hard approach to motivation relies on coercion, implicit threats, micromanagement, and tight controls— essentially an environment of command and control. The soft approach, however, is to be permissive and seek harmony in the hopes that, in return, employees will cooperate when asked. However, neither of these extremes is optimal.


Theory X assumes that an employee dislikes work, while theory Y presupposes that work is natural for employees. On the other hand, theory Y infers that people accept and seek responsibility. The leadership style adopted by the management, in the case of theory X is autocratic.


Theory X and Theory Y

The paper used hierarchical linear modeling to test the hypotheses. The findings of the present study suggest that the Theory X and Y managerial assumptions are a worthwhile basis from which to examine several important organizational and individual outcomes. The sample consisted of military personnel and were predominantly male. This may limit the generalizability of the findings.

Difference Between Theory X and Theory Y

Theory X and Theory Y are theories of human work motivation and management. The two theories proposed by McGregor describe contrasting models of workforce motivation applied by managers in human resource management , organizational behavior , organizational communication and organizational development. Theory X explains the importance of heightened supervision, external rewards, and penalties, while Theory Y highlights the motivating role of job satisfaction and encourages workers to approach tasks without direct supervision.

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In combination, both approaches are referred to as Theory XY. Theory XY remains central to organizational development, and to improving organizational culture and is developed based on the basis that there are fundamental approaches to managing people based on their characteristics. Overview and Key Difference 2. What is Theory X 3.

Theory X And Theory Y. Theory X managers take a 'carrot and stick' approach when motivating subordinates. They assume that workers are inherently resistant to labor and will do all they can to avoid doing work so as to gain the maximum amount of profit for the least amount of effort. They may assume responsibility, but will do so for personal profit alone. Theory Y managers assume that workers are internally motivated, rather than externally motivated. The essential problem with Theory X approaches, McGregor contended, is that once basic needs are satisfied, they are no longer motivational. Once a worker has enough money for life expenses and reaches a certain salary level, continually using money…… [Read More].

What is Theory X?

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Work is changing. And the approach to and requirements of leadership are changing with it. The modern manager knows how to distribute responsibility, instill trust in their employees, and motivate team members to deliver their best work and ideas. But there are times when management is less about leadership and more about the staunch enforcement of rules and micromanagement of production. These differing management styles have been coined in the academic management community as Theory X and Theory Y. Because employees have historically been given a flat exchange of time and energy for income, workplace incentives have often been rooted in a fear of loss of employment, in earning potential from extra productivity, or in acquiescing to managerial dominance for promotion.

Theory X and Theory Y

 Милый, - глухо прошептала.  - Позволь, я переберусь наверх.  - Но немец даже не шевельнулся.

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Gregoria M.

А перед глазами у нее стоял образ Фила Чатрукьяна, его искалеченного и обгоревшего тела, распростертого на генераторах, а из головы не выходила мысль о Хейле, притаившемся в лабиринтах шифровалки.