difference between conductors semiconductors and insulators on the basis of energy band theory pdf

Difference between conductors semiconductors and insulators on the basis of energy band theory pdf

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Band Theory of Electrical Conductivity

1 Fundamentals - Halbleiter

Difference Between Conductors, Semiconductors and Insulators

Content: Conductors Vs Semiconductors Vs Insulators

Band Theory of Electrical Conductivity

A conductor is a material that is able to conduct electricity with minimal impedance to the electrical flow. It is commonly a metal. A conductor is a material which contains movable electric charges. In metallic conductors such as copper or aluminum, the movable charged particles are electrons. Positive charges may also be mobile, such as the cationic electrolyte s of a battery or the mobile protons of the proton conductor of a fuel cell.

1 Fundamentals - Halbleiter

Conductors, semiconductors and insulators can be distinguished on the ground of their conductivity and other properties. Conductors like metals show conductivity at room temperature, but as the temperature increases, their conductivity gets reduced. However, semiconductors act as the insulators at low temperature but as the temperature increases so their conducting properties also; however, insulators have no such effect of temperature variations as they do not have the conducting properties. Insulators and conductors can be solid, liquid or gas, and in some exceptions like glass solid which is an insulator becomes conductors when melted at the higher temperature. On the other hand, semiconductors are present in the solid form. Liquids can be conductors or insulators, depends on other properties.


A metal having conductivity which is between conductor and an insulator is called semiconductor. The silicon and germanium are the examples of a.


Difference Between Conductors, Semiconductors and Insulators

Band Theory was developed with some help from the knowledge gained during the quantum revolution in science. In , Felix Bloch had the idea to take the quantum theory and apply it to solids. In , Walter Heitler and Fritz London discovered bands- very closely spaced orbitals with not much difference in energy. In this image, orbitals are represented by the black horizontal lines, and they are being filled with an increasing number of electrons as their amount increases. Eventually, as more orbitals are added, the space in between them decreases to hardly anything, and as a result, a band is formed where the orbitals have been filled.

A useful way to visualize the difference between conductors , insulators and semiconductors is to plot the available energies for electrons in the materials. Instead of having discrete energies as in the case of free atoms, the available energy states form bands. Crucial to the conduction process is whether or not there are electrons in the conduction band. In insulators the electrons in the valence band are separated by a large gap from the conduction band, in conductors like metals the valence band overlaps the conduction band, and in semiconductors there is a small enough gap between the valence and conduction bands that thermal or other excitations can bridge the gap.

Band Theory Of Conductors Semiconductors And Insulators Pdf

The crucial difference between conductor, semiconductor and insulator rely on their level of conductivity. Conductors are basically the materials that allow easy flow of electric current, hence exhibiting high conductivity, semiconductors are the materials that possess moderate conductivity.

Content: Conductors Vs Semiconductors Vs Insulators

Levels of conductivity are the main difference between conductors, semiconductors and insulators. Conductors display high conductivity, which means they allow energy, such as electricity, heat or sound, to easily flow through them. Whereas semiconductors allow a moderate flow and insulators exhibit low conductivity. Whilst conductivity is the principal difference between conductors, semiconductors and insulators, there are a number of other differences between the three. These differences may also need to be considered when thinking about their industrial and commercial uses. Here at Elmelin, we use specialise in providing industrial insulation material and solutions , using high-quality muscovite white mica and phlogopite green mica. Band theory is one of the main ways of explaining differences in conduction.

Conductors are generally substances which have the property to pass different types of energy. In the following, the conductivity of electricity is the value of interest. The conductivity of metals is based on the free electrons so-called Fermi gas due to the metal bonding.

Band Theory of Solids

Content: Conductor V/s Insulator

The electronic band structure is an energy schema to describe the conductivity of con- ductors, insulators, and semiconductors. The schema consists of two energy bands va- lence and conduction band and the band gap. The valence electrons - which serve as Page 2 Conductors - Insulators -. Metals, Semiconductors, and Insulators Metals have free electrons and partially filled valence bands, therefore they are highly conductive a. Semimetals have their highest band filled. This filled band, however, overlaps with the next higher band, therefore they are conductive but with slightly higher resistivity than normal metals b. Examples: arsenic, bismuth, and antimony.

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1 comments

  • Everett P. 03.06.2021 at 18:12

    The conductor and insulator are the types of material.

    Reply

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