File Name: from utterance to text the bias of language in speech and writing .zip
We humans are teaching our robots how to speak. But when humans speak to each other, we can be pretty terrible. The words we use express our biases and prejudices, our stereotypes about each other, and the inequalities of our society. Do we want our robots to replicate all of that? Or should we hold them to a higher standard?
Harvard Educational Review 1 September ; 47 3 : — In this far-ranging essay David Olson attempts to reframe current controversies over several aspects of language, including meaning, comprehension, acquisition,reading, and reasoning. Olson argues that in all these cases the conflicts are rooted in differing assumptions about the relation of meaning to language: whether meaning is extrinsic to language—a relation Olson designates as "utterance"—or intrinsic—a relation he calls "text. He traces the history and impact of conventionalized, explicit language from the invention of the Greek alphabet through the rise of the British essayist technique. Olson concludes with a discussion of the resulting conception of language and the implications for the linguistic, psychological, and logical issues raised initially. Sign In or Create an Account.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution. Rent this article via DeepDyve. Chafe, W. Meaning and the structure of language. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Google Scholar. Chomsky, N.
In this far-ranging essay David Olson attempts to reframe current controversies over several aspects of language, including meaning.
We humans are teaching our robots how to speak. But when humans speak to each other, we can be pretty terrible. The words we use express our biases and prejudices, our stereotypes about each other, and the inequalities of our society. Do we want our robots to replicate all of that?
We examine gender bias in media by tallying the number of men and women quoted in news text, using the Gender Gap Tracker, a software system we developed specifically for this purpose. The Gender Gap Tracker downloads and analyzes the online daily publication of seven English-language Canadian news outlets and enhances the data with multiple layers of linguistic information. We describe the Natural Language Processing technology behind this system, the curation of off-the-shelf tools and resources that we used to build it, and the parts that we developed.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language. Linguists traditionally analyse human language by observing the relationship between sound and meaning. Each speech sound particle is called a phoneme. How these phonemes are organised to convey meaning depends on various linguistic patterns and structures that theoretical linguists describe and analyse. Some of these patterns of sound and meaning are found in the study of morphology concerning how words are formulated through "morphemes" , syntax how phrases and sentences are structured , and phonology the study of sound patterns. The emergence of historical and evolutionary linguistics has also led to a greater focus over studying how languages change and grow, particularly over an extended period of time. Macrolinguistic concepts include the study of narrative theory, stylistics , discourse analysis, and semiotics.
Most studies of the cognitive consequences of literacy have attempted to compare the performance of literate individuals with that of illiterate individuals. We argue that it is not absolutely necessary to examine illiterates in order to study the cognitive consequences of reading experience because there is enormous variation in exposure to print even within a generally literate society. In the present study, we tested several methods of assessing differential exposure to print and demonstrated that all have significant correlations with measures of vocabulary, cultural knowledge, spelling ability, and verbal fluency. Several indicators of print exposure predicted variance in these knowledge domains even when general ability and reading-comprehension skill were statistically controlled. Our results, although correlational, suggest that print exposure is an independent contributor to the development of certain verbal skills.
Why are you suitable for this job sample answer pdf essays in english on current topics in india pdfReply