File Name: the encyclopedia of politics the left and the right .zip
Conservatism and its modernising, anti-traditionalist rivals, liberalism and socialism, are the most influential political philosophies and ideologies of the post-Enlightenment era. Conservatives criticise their rivals for making a utopian exaggeration of the power of theoretical reason, and of human perfectibility. Conservative prescriptions are based on what they regard as experience rather than reason; for them, the ideal and the practical are inseparable. Most commentators regard conservatism as a modern political philosophy, even though it exhibits the standpoint of paternalism or authority, rather than freedom. As John Gray writes, while liberalism is the dominant political theory of the modern age, conservatism, despite appealing to tradition, is also a response to the challenges of modernity.
Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy , ideology and social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual. Individualism makes the individual its focus  and so starts "with the fundamental premise that the human individual is of primary importance in the struggle for liberation". Individualism has been used as a term denoting "[t]he quality of being an individual; individuality",  related to possessing "[a]n individual characteristic; a quirk ". In the English language , the word individualism was first introduced as a pejorative by utopian socialists such as the Owenites in the late s, although it is unclear if they were influenced by Saint-Simonianism or came up with it independently. Although an early follower of Robert Owen , he eventually rejected its collective idea of property and found in individualism a "universalism" that allowed for the development of the "original genius". Without individualism, Smith argued that individuals cannot amass property to increase one's happiness. An individual is a person or any specific object in a collection.
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Political party , a group of persons organized to acquire and exercise political power. Political parties originated in their modern form in Europe and the United States in the 19th century, along with the electoral and parliamentary systems , whose development reflects the evolution of parties. The term party has since come to be applied to all organized groups seeking political power, whether by democratic elections or by revolution. In earlier, prerevolutionary, aristocratic and monarchical regimes, the political process unfolded within restricted circles in which cliques and factions, grouped around particular noblemen or influential personalities, were opposed to one another.
Senator Carl A. Hatch polishes up his lucky 13 office number. His Hatch Act prohibited federal employees from taking part in political campaigns. The Act was upheld against First Amendment challenges. The Hatch Act, an attempt to regulate corruption and possible intimidation of federal employees in the civil service by their elected supervisors, was enacted by Congress in
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