File Name: tools of thinking understanding the world through experience and reason .zip
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Children differ from adult learners in many ways, but there are also surprising commonalities across learners of all ages.
In this article we will discuss about:- 1. Introduction to Thinking 2. Types of Thinking 3. Development 4. Tools 5. Cognitive abilities like thinking, reasoning and problem-solving may be considered to be some of the chief characteristics which distinguish human beings from other species including the higher animals.
The challenges and problems faced by the individual or by society, in general are solved through series of efforts involving thinking and reasoning. The powers of thinking and reasoning may thus be considered to be the essential tools for the welfare and meaningful existence of the individual as well as society.
This is the simplest form of thinking the basis of this type is perception, i. It is also called concrete thinking as it is carried out on the perception of actual or concrete objects and events. Here one makes use of concepts, the generalized objects and languages, it is regarded as being superior to perceptual thinking as it economizes efforts in understanding and problem-solving.
This type of thinking aims in solving complex problems, thus it requires reorganization of all the relevant experiences to a situation or removing obstacles instead of relating with that experiences or ideas. This is an insightful cognitive approach in reflective thinking as the mental activity here does not involve the mechanical trial and error type of efforts.
In this type, thinking processes take all the relevant facts arranged in a logical order into an account in order to arrive at a solution of the problem. It looks for new relationships and associations to describe and interpret the nature of things, events and situations.
Here the individual himself usually formulates the evidences and tools for its solution. For example; scientists, artists or inventors. Skinner, the famous psychologist says creative thinking means that the prediction and inferences for the individual are new, original, ingenious and unusual.
The creative thinker is one who expresses new ideas and makes new observations, new predictions and new inferences. Creative thinking results in the production of something new or novel including a new form of arrangement of old elements. Creative thinking in all its dimensions involve divergent thinking instead of the routine and final types of convergent thinking. The mind must have complete freedom to wander around to create a new idea.
The field of creative thinking and its out part is quite comprehensive and built wide. It is a type of thinking that helps a person in stepping aside from his own personal beliefs, prejudices and opinions to sort out the faiths and discover the truth, even at the expense of his basic belief system.
Here one resorts to set higher cognitive abilities and skills for the proper interpretation, analysis, evaluation and inference, as well as explanation of the gathered or communicated information resulting in a purposeful unbiased and self-regulatory judgement. An ideal thinker is habitually inquisitive, well-informed, open-minded, flexible, fair-minded in evaluation, free from personal bias and prejudices, honest in seeking relevant information, skilled in the proper use of the abilities like interpretation, analysis, synthesis, evaluation and drawing conclusion and inferences, etc.
There are times when we find ourselves engaged in a unique type of thinking which is non-directed and without goal. It is reflected through dreaming and other free-flowing uncontrolled activities.
Psychologically these forms of thought are termed as associative thinking. Here day-dreaming, fantasy and delusions all fall in the category of withdrawal behaviour that helps an individual to escape from the demands of the real world by making his thinking face non-directed and floating, placing him somewhere, ordering something unconnected with his environment.
A person under the influence of such delusions may think or believe that he is a millionaire, the ruler of the universe, a great inventor, a noted historian or even God.
In contrast, a person in the grip of delusion may be inclined to be the most incapable, unworthy and unwanted person and may develop guilt feelings or complain that he is the victim of some incurable physical or mental diseases. Thinking is one of the most important aspects of learning process. Our ability to learn and solve the problems depends upon our ability to think correctly which helps us in adjustment and is necessary for a successful living.
Only those men who can think distinctly, constructively and carefully can very much contribute something worthwhile to the society. As no person is born-thinker, one has to acquire knowledge of technique and practise of proper thinking. Adequacy of the knowledge and experience is considered to be the background of systematic thinking. So care should be taken to help the children with adequate knowledge and experiences which can be done by:.
Motivation helps in mobilizing our energy for thinking. It creates genuine interest and voluntary attention in the process of thinking, and thus helps a lot in increasing the adequacy and efficiency of our thinking. Thus one should try to think on definite lines with a definite end or purpose, the problems we solve should have intimate connection with our immediate needs and basic motives, and such thinking should be directed on creative and productive activities.
Thinking should not be obstructed by imposing unnecessary restrictions and narrowing of the field of thought process. If the past experiences or habitual methods do not help in solving the problem we should strive for new association, relationships and possibilities for arriving at satisfactory results.
When we set ourselves to solve a problem but fail to solve it in-spite of our strain, putting more efforts to thinking and persistent thinking, it is better to lay aside the problem for some time and relax for a while or engage in some other activity. During this interval a solution is evolved to that specific problem through the efforts of our unconscious mind.
This phenomenon of incubation is helpful. Intelligence is defined as the ability to think properly, and thus proper development of intelligence is essential for bringing adequate thinking. Proper care should be taken to use intelligence, wisdom and other cognitive abilities for carrying out the process of thinking.
Language is a highly developed system of symbols in which words within a grammar can be written or spoken in different combinations. Much of the thinking depends upon language although some imaging are also present. Concepts, symbols, signs, words and language are the vehicles as well as instruments of thought. Without their proper development one cannot proceed effectively on the path of thinking.
Their development stimulates and guides the thought process. Thinking is also influenced by the mode of reasons one adopts. Illogical reasoning often leads to incorrect thinking. Logic is the science of correct reasoning which helps to think correctly. Therefore, we should cultivate the habit of logical reasoning among our children. As mental pictures consist of personal experiences of objects, persons or situations, heard and felt.
These mental pictures symbolize actual objects, experiences and activities. In thinking, we usually manipulate the images rather than the actual objects, experiences or activities. A concept is a general idea that stands for a general class and represents the common characteristics of all objects or events of this general class. Symbols and signs represent and stand for substitute of the actual objects, experiences and activities. For example, traffic lights, railway signals, school bells, badges, songs, flags and slogans all are symbolic expressions, they stimulate and motivate resultant thinking because they tell us what to do or how to act.
Is the most efficient and developed vehicle used for carrying out the process of thinking. When a person reads, writes or hears words or sentences or observes gesture in any language one is stimulated to think. Thus reading and writing of documents and literature also help in stimulating and promoting the thinking process. Thinking in one way or the other shows the evidence of the involvement of some incipient movements of groups of our muscles.
A high positive relation has been found to exist for the thinking and muscular activities of an individual. The more we engage ourselves in thought, the greater is the general muscular tension and conversely as we moved towards muscular relation, our thought processes gradually diminish.
Whatever may be the role of the muscles, thinking is primarily a function of the brain. Our mind is said to be the chief instrument of the thinking process. The experiences registered by our sense organs have no meaning, and thus cannot serve as stimulating agents, or instruments for thinking unless these impressions are received by our brain cells and properly interpreted to derive some meaning.
The mental pictures or images can be stored, reconstructed or put to use only on being processed by the brain. What happens in our thought process is simply the function or product of the activities of our brain.
Whatever registered earlier in our perceptions or experiences provide the base for our present and future thinking. We happen to make mistakes because of our attitude, likes and dislikes, bias or oversimplified thinking, reasoning and problem-solving, etc.
These mental sets have been gained from previous experiences surely interfere with our subsequent thinking resulting in ineffective behaviour. Thus our thinking will be defective and harmful if it is not based on correct data or information. Our biases, prejudices and beliefs sometimes do not enable us to think logically. We make wrong conclusion because of our prejudices, hence we are inclined to ignore and overlook those facts which support right conclusion.
Our thinking is defective because we have allowed ourselves to be swayed by our emotions. Many people do not think clearly and accurately during an examination because they have been disturbed by fear and failure. Many times our thinking become fallacious, and cannot view the problem from different angles broadly.
Many of our thinking may also be distorted by superstitions or by lack of information that is relevant to the subject. Many of our wishful thinking are also unscientific thinking. Our prejudices and biases cause conflicts, rationalizations and delusions which are defective thinking as well.
In the Australian Curriculum, students develop capability in critical and creative thinking as they learn to generate and evaluate knowledge, clarify concepts and ideas, seek possibilities, consider alternatives and solve problems. Critical and creative thinking involves students thinking broadly and deeply using skills, behaviours and dispositions such as reason, logic, resourcefulness, imagination and innovation in all learning areas at school and in their lives beyond school. Thinking that is productive, purposeful and intentional is at the centre of effective learning. By applying a sequence of thinking skills, students develop an increasingly sophisticated understanding of the processes they can use whenever they encounter problems, unfamiliar information and new ideas. They become more confident and autonomous problem-solvers and thinkers.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The pace at which science proceeds sometimes seems alarmingly slow, and impatience and hopes both run high when discussions turn to issues of learning and education. In the field of learning, the past quarter century has been a period of major research advances. Because of the many new developments, the studies that resulted in this volume were conducted to appraise the scientific knowledge base on human learning and its application to education.
Skip to content. It teaches critical thinking, close reading, clear writing, and logical analysis; it uses these to understand the language we use to describe the world, and our place within it. Different areas of philosophy are distinguished by the questions they ask. Do our senses accurately describe reality?
Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying logic , and adapting or justifying practices, institutions , and beliefs based on new or existing information. Reasoning is associated with the acts of thinking and cognition , and involves using one's intellect. The field of logic studies the ways in which humans can use formal reasoning to produce logically valid arguments. Aristotle drew a distinction between logical discursive reasoning reason proper , and intuitive reasoning ,  in which the reasoning process through intuition—however valid—may tend toward the personal and the subjectively opaque. In some social and political settings logical and intuitive modes of reasoning may clash, while in other contexts intuition and formal reason are seen as complementary rather than adversarial.
In this article we will discuss about:- 1. Introduction to Thinking 2. Types of Thinking 3.