File Name: ethnicity pluralism and the state in the middle east .zip
One of the most painful unanswered questions of the Syrian civil war is how an uprising touting the values of democracy, universal rights, and inclusion devolved into an international conflict, with multiple foreign interventions, in which sectarian and ethnic tensions rose considerably. The regime of Bashar al-Assad has argued it was fighting the forces of extremism from the beginning. The narrative of the secular opposition is that the Assad regime intentionally allowed extremist foes to flourish while crushing other activists, in order to discredit the uprising; the opposition was further doomed to failure by the interventions of foreign powers, both regional and global. It was never able to reflect the inclusive appeal of the initial protest movement that gathered large sectors of the Syrian population from various backgrounds. This report explores the record and practice of articulating citizenship among the main opposition bodies supported by the West and regional countries: the Syrian National Council SNC and the National Coalition for Syrian Revolution and Opposition Forces known as the Coalition.
Thanks to Sir Robert Hinde, Dr. Oliver Curry, and three anonymous reviewers for commenting on earlier drafts of this article. Special thanks to Professor Maureen Callanan for valuable advice and assistance. The relationship between religion and morality has long been hotly debated. Does religion make us more moral?
The Taliban is a predominantly Pashtun, Islamic fundamentalist group that ruled Afghanistan from until , when a U. The Taliban regrouped across the border in Pakistan and has led an insurgency against the U. In , the Taliban signed a peace agreement with the United States and entered into power-sharing negotiations with the Afghan government. However, the Taliban continues to launch attacks against government and civilian targets and controls dozens of Afghan districts. The intra-Afghan talks have mostly stalled, raising questions about whether U. Analysts warn that violence could escalate dramatically in and that the peace process could collapse , increasing the likelihood of an expanded civil war, casualties, and activities by terrorist groups. Afghanistan War.
The letter warned that school principals would be punished if schools did not follow the order. It stated that teenage schoolgirls could only perform in choirs for female audiences and could not be trained by male tutors. No discrimination and prejudice can stop girls from joining choirs and having access to training for this high-value art. People with British or Irish passports, or those with the right to stay long-term in the UK, will be exempt, but will be forced to quarantine in a hotel for 10 days on arrival. The new measures will take effect from 4 a. The evidence is overwhelming. The impasse in the UNSC means this could be the best hope for holding the Assad regime accountable for its crimes.
Sectarian conflict in Pakistan is the direct consequence of state policies of Islamisation and marginalisation of secular democratic forces. Co-option and patronage of religious parties by successive military governments have brought Pakistan to a point where religious extremism threatens to erode the foundations of the state and society. As President Pervez Musharraf is praised by the international community for his role in the war against terrorism, the frequency and viciousness of sectarian terrorism continues to increase in his country. Instead of empowering liberal, democratic voices, the government has co-opted the religious right and continues to rely on it to counter civilian opposition. By depriving democratic forces of an even playing field and continuing to ignore the need for state policies that would encourage and indeed reflect the country's religious diversity, the government has allowed religious extremist organisations and jihadi groups, and the madrasas that provide them an endless stream of recruits, to flourish. It has failed to protect a vulnerable judiciary and equip its law-enforcement agencies with the tools they need to eliminate sectarian terrorism.
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Fanar Haddad. Are religious doctrinal differences primarily responsible for stoking intercommunal fear and hatred? What roles have state, sub-state and transnational actors played in fomenting sectarian discord? And what could be done to avert sectarian violence, to foster tolerance and peaceful coexistence, and to promote reconciliation?
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Халохот шарил по полу, нащупывая пистолет. Наконец он нашел его и снова выстрелил. Пуля ударила в закрывающуюся дверь. Пустое пространство зала аэропорта открылось перед Беккером подобно бескрайней пустыне. Ноги несли его с такой быстротой, на какую, казалось ему, он не был способен. Когда он влетел во вращающуюся дверь, прозвучал еще один выстрел. Стеклянная панель обдала его дождем осколков.
Время ввода - двадцать три тридцать семь и восемь секунд, однако время завершения дешифровки не указано. - Мидж полистала страницы. - Ни вчера, ни. Бринкерхофф пожал плечами: - Быть может, ребята заняты сложной диагностикой. Мидж покачала головой: - Настолько сложной, что она длится уже восемнадцать часов? - Она выдержала паузу.
Все внимание Беккера сосредоточилось на открытой двери, и он забыл о жгучей боли в ногах. Задние колеса уже остались за спиной - огромные, доходящие ему до плеч скаты, вращающиеся все быстрее и быстрее. Беккер рванулся к двери, рука его опустилась мимо поручня, и он чуть не упал. Еще одно усилие. Где-то под брюхом автобуса клацнуло сцепление: сейчас водитель переключит рычаг скоростей. Сейчас переключит.
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