File Name: american indian politics and the american political system .zip
Building on the ten themes of the National Council for the Social Studies' national curriculum standards, the NMAI's Essential Understandings reveal key concepts about the rich and diverse cultures, histories, and contemporary lives of Native Peoples. These concepts reflect a multitude of untold stories about American Indians that can deepen and expand your teaching of history, geography, civics, economics, science, engineering, and other subject areas. Culture is a result of human socialization.
Building on the ten themes of the National Council for the Social Studies' national curriculum standards, the NMAI's Essential Understandings reveal key concepts about the rich and diverse cultures, histories, and contemporary lives of Native Peoples.
These concepts reflect a multitude of untold stories about American Indians that can deepen and expand your teaching of history, geography, civics, economics, science, engineering, and other subject areas.
Culture is a result of human socialization. People acquire knowledge and values by interacting with other people through common language, place, and community. In the Americas, there is vast cultural diversity among more than 2, tribal groups. Tribes have unique cultures and ways of life that span history from time immemorial to the present day. Indigenous people of the Americas shaped life in the Western Hemisphere for millennia.
After contact, American Indians and the events involving them greatly influenced the histories of the European colonies and the modern nations of North, Central, and South America. Today, this influence continues to play significant roles in many aspects of political, legal, cultural, environmental, and economic issues.
To understand the history and cultures of the Americas requires understanding American Indian history from Indian perspectives. For thousands of years, indigenous people have studied, managed, honored, and thrived in their homelands. These foundations continue to influence American Indian relationships and interactions with the land today. American Indian individual development and identity is tied to culture and the forces that have influenced and changed culture over time. Unique social structures, such as clan systems, rites of passage, and protocols for nurturing and developing individual roles in tribal society, characterize each American Indian culture.
American Indian cultures have always been dynamic and adaptive in response to interactions with others. American Indians have always operated and interacted within self-defined social structures that include institutions, societies, and organizations, each with specific functions. These social structures have shaped the lives and histories of American Indians through the present day. American Indians devised and have always lived under a variety of complex systems of government.
Tribal governments faced rapid and devastating change as a result of European colonization and the development of the United States. Tribes today still govern their own affairs and maintain a government-to-government relationship with the United States and other governments. American Indians developed a variety of economic systems that reflected their cultures and managed their relationships with others.
Prior to European arrival in the Americas, American Indians produced and traded goods and technologies using well-developed systems of trails and widespread transcontinental, intertribal trade routes.
Today, American Indian tribes and individuals are active in economic enterprises that involve production and distribution.
American Indian knowledge resides in languages, cultural practices, and teaching that spans many generations. This knowledge is based on long-term observation, experimentation, and experience with the living earth. Indigenous knowledge has sustained American Indian cultures for thousands of years. When applied to contemporary global challenges, Native knowledge contributes to dynamic and innovative solutions. American Indians have always engaged in the world beyond the immediacy of their own communities.
For millennia, indigenous people of North America exchanged and traded ideas, goods, technologies, and arts with other tribal nations, near and far.
Global connections expanded and intensified after contact with Europeans. American Indian foods, technologies, wealth, and labor contributed to the development of the modern world. Ideals, principles, and practices of citizenship have always been part of American Indian societies. The rights and responsibilities of American Indian individuals have been defined by the values, morals, and beliefs common to their cultures.
American Indians today may be citizens of their tribal nations, the states they live in, and the United States. Key Concepts: There is no single American Indian culture or language. American Indians are both individuals and members of a tribal group. For millennia, American Indians have shaped and been shaped by their culture and environment. Elders in each generation teach the next generation their values, traditions, and beliefs through their own tribal languages, social practices, arts, music, ceremonies, and customs.
Kinship and extended family relationships have always been and continue to be essential in the shaping of American Indian cultures. American Indian cultures have always been dynamic and changing. Interactions with Europeans and Americans brought accelerated and often devastating changes to American Indian cultures.
Native people continue to fight to maintain the integrity and viability of indigenous societies. American Indian history is one of cultural persistence, creative adaptation, renewal, and resilience. American Indians share many similarities with other indigenous people of the world, along with many differences.
Key Concepts: Many American Indian communities have creation stories that specify their origins in the Western Hemisphere. The Western Hemisphere was laced with diverse, well-developed, and complex societies that interacted with one another over millennia.
American Indian history is not singular or timeless. American Indian cultures have always adapted and changed in response to environmental, economic, social, and other factors. American Indian cultures and people are fully engaged in the modern world. American Indians employed a variety of methods to record and preserve their histories.
European contact resulted in devastating loss of life, disruption of tradition, and enormous loss of lands for American Indians. Hearing and understanding American Indian history from Indian perspectives provides an important point of view to the discussion of history and cultures in the Americas. Indian perspectives expand the social, political, and economic dialogue. Indigenous people played a significant role in the history of the Americas.
Many of these historically important events and developments in the Americas shaped the modern world. Providing an American Indian context to history makes for a greater understanding of world history. Key Concepts: The story of American Indians in the Western Hemisphere is intricately intertwined with places and environments. Native knowledge systems resulted from long-term occupation of tribal homelands, and observation and interaction with places. American Indians understood and valued the relationship between local environments and cultural traditions, and recognized that human beings are part of the environment.
Long before their contact with Europeans, indigenous people populated the Americas and were successful stewards and managers of the land, from the Arctic Circle to Tierra del Fuego. European contact resulted in exposure to Old World diseases, displacement, and wars, devastating the underlying foundations of American Indian societies. Throughout their histories, Native groups have relocated and successfully adapted to new places and environments. Well-developed systems of trails, including some hard-surfaced roads, interlaced the Western Hemisphere prior to European contact.
These trading routes made possible the exchange of foods and other goods. Many of the trails were later used by Euro-Americans as roads and highways. The imposition of international, state, reservation, and other borders on Native lands changed relationships between people and their environments, affected how people lived, and sometimes isolated tribal citizens and family members from one another.
Key Concepts: For American Indians, identity development takes place in a cultural context, and the process differs from one American Indian culture to another. American Indian identity is shaped by the family, peers, social norms, and institutions inside and outside a community or culture.
Historically, well-established conventions and practices nurtured and promoted the development of individual identity. These included careful observation and nurturing of individual talents and interests by elders and family members; rites of passage; social and gender roles; and family specializations, such as healers, religious leaders, artists, and whalers.
Contact with Europeans and Americans disrupted and transformed traditional norms for identity development. Today, Native identity is shaped by many complex social, political, historical, and cultural factors. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, many American Indian communities have sought to revitalize and reclaim their languages and cultures. Native kinship systems were influential in shaping people's roles and interactions among other individuals, groups, and institutions.
External educational, governmental, and religious institutions have exerted major influences on American Indian individuals, groups, and institutions. Native people have fought to counter these pressures and have adapted to them when necessary. Many Native institutions today are mixtures of Native and Western constructs, reflecting external influence and Native adaptation.
A variety of specialized agencies have been formed to interact with and serve American Indian individuals, groups, and institutions. Today, because of treaties, court decisions, and statutes, tribal governments maintain a unique relationship with federal and state governments. Today, American Indian governments uphold tribal sovereignty and promote tribal culture and well-being. Key Concepts: Today, tribal governments operate under self-chosen traditional or constitution-based governmental structures.
Based on treaties, laws, and court decisions, they operate as sovereign nations within the United States, enacting and enforcing laws and managing judicial systems, social well-being, natural resources, and economic, educational, and other programs for their members. Tribal governments are also responsible for interactions with American federal, state, and municipal governments. Long before European colonization, American Indians had developed a variety of complex systems of government that embodied important principles for effective rule.
American Indian governments and leaders interacted, recognized each other's sovereignty, practiced diplomacy, built strategic alliances, waged wars, and negotiated peace accords. After , American Indians suffered diseases and genocidal events that resulted in death on a catastrophic scale and the rapid decimation of Native populations. These episodes greatly compromised the continuity of existing tribal government structures. A variety of political, economic, legal, military, and social policies were used by Europeans and Americans to remove and relocate American Indians and to destroy their cultures.
Many of these policies had a devastating effect on established American Indian governing principles and systems. Other policies sought to strengthen and restore tribal self-government.
A variety of historical policy periods have had a major impact on American Indian people's abilities to self-govern. Key Concepts: For thousands of years American Indians developed and operated vast trade networks throughout the Western Hemisphere. American Indians traded, exchanged, gifted, and negotiated the purchase of goods, foods, technologies, domestic animals, ideas, and cultural practices with one another. American Indians played influential and powerful roles in trade and exchange economies with partners in Europe during the colonial period.
These activities also supported the development and growth of the United States. Today, American Indians are involved in a variety of economic enterprises, set economic policies for their nations, and own and manage natural resources that affect the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services throughout much of the United States. Key Concepts: American Indian knowledge can inform the ongoing search for new solutions to contemporary issues.
American Indian knowledge reflects a relationship developed over millennia with the living earth based on keen observation, experimentation, and practice.
American Indian knowledge is closely tied to languages, cultural values, and practices.
Currently, the Navajo Nation has the highest infection rate in the country, 1 greater than that of the worst-hit state, New York; it is even greater than that of Wuhan at the height of the outbreak in China. Tribal gaming revenues are equivalent to state tax revenues, and federal law requires tribes to use these to fund tribal government operations and programs. At the root of all these vulnerabilities are the broken promises that the federal government made to tribes in the constitutional process of signing treaties to acquire their lands. Tribes ceded huge swaths of land to the United States with the formal, treaty-enshrined understanding that the federal government would protect the tribes as sovereign political entities whose right to self-governance it would safeguard and to whom it would provide adequate resources to deliver essential services. This is the foundation of the government-to-government relationship that exists between the federal government and tribal nations, which function not as racial groups but as sovereign political entities to whom the United States has a recognized trust and treaty responsibility embodied in the Constitution, treaties, and federal statutes.
American Indian Politics and the American Political System is the most comprehensive text written from a political science perspective. It analyzes the structures and functions of indigenous governments including Alaskan Native communities and Hawaiian Natives and the distinctive legal and political rights these nations exercise internally. It also examines the fascinating intergovernmental relationship that exists between native nations, the states, and the federal government. In the fourth edition, Wilkins and Stark analyze the challenges facing Indigenous nations as they develop new and innovative strategies to defend and demand recognition of their national character and rights. They also seeks to address issues that continue to plague many nations, such as notions of belonging and citizenship, implementation of governing structures and processes attentive to Indigenous political and legal traditions, and the promotion and enactment of sustainable practices that support our interdependence in an increasingly globalized world.
The thoughts and perspectives of indigenous individuals, especially those who lived during the 15th through 19th centuries, have survived in written form less often than is optimal for the historian. Because such documents are extremely rare, those interested in the Native American past also draw information from traditional arts , folk literature , folklore , archaeology , and other sources. Native American history is made additionally complex by the diverse geographic and cultural backgrounds of the peoples involved. As one would expect, indigenous American farmers living in stratified societies, such as the Natchez , engaged with Europeans differently than did those who relied on hunting and gathering, such as the Apache. Likewise, Spanish conquistadors were engaged in a fundamentally different kind of colonial enterprise than were their counterparts from France or England. The sections below consider broad trends in Native American history from the late 15th century to the late 20th century.
Native Americans are citizens of their respective Native nations as well as the United States , and those nations are characterized under United States law as " domestic dependent nations ", a special relationship that creates a tension between rights retained via tribal sovereignty and rights that individual Natives have as U. This status creates tension today, but was far more extreme before Native people were uniformly granted U. Assorted laws and policies of the United States government, some tracing to the pre-Revolutionary colonial period , denied basic human rights —particularly in the areas of cultural expression and travel—to indigenous people. Although the many tribes and peoples indigenous to the United States have varying civil rights priorities, there are some rights that nearly all Native Americans are actively pursuing. These include the protection of voting rights and resistance to the cultural assimilation of Native Americans. Many tribes that live on Indian reservations are currently facing the destruction of surrounding environments and water sources, depressed economies, violence against women , and drug and alcohol addiction crises.
As the administrator of a government agency, it is important to be aware of and informed about both the public health issues affecting American Indians and the unique nature of the government-to-government relationship between American Indian tribes and U. Collaborations between government and tribal entities can be fraught with historic distrust, but local governments that have persisted in trying to establish meaningful, respectful relationships with neighboring tribal systems have found these relationships to be very rewarding and important in accomplishing mutual public health goals. Tribes experience great diversity across and within themselves, as a result of the tribal system created in the late s, historical rivalries and politics between tribes or nations, and cultures adapted to natural environments and trade influence.
Jean Schroedel is professor emerita of political science. Schroedel taught classes on American political development, voting rights, women and the law, women and policy, Congress and policy-making. Schroedel has a strong record of doing collaborative research with graduate students—since coming to CGU, she has jointly published articles with more than 40 graduate students. Midway through graduate school, Schroedel published her first book, Alone in a Crowd Temple University Press, , a study of women employed in nontraditional blue-collar occupations. This research was a direct outgrowth of her experiences as a garment worker, bus driver and machinist prior to attending college. Her second book, Congress, the President, and Policymaking: A Historical Analysis , is a longitudinal analysis of the shifting roles of Congress and the president in the policy-making process and the extent to which the Constitution acts as a check on presidential encroachment into the legislative arena.
Covering an enormous subject area, Wilkins manages to be both comprehensive and concise. There likely is no better source of accurate information about American Indian law, politics, economics, history, and even sociology on the market today. American Indians in the American political system is a subject area of enormous depth and complexity, and the topic of American Indians in tribal political systems is even more complex. Wilkins offers a very good and useful summary of both, with critical analysis undergirding the structure of the text. Modern American Indian politics cannot be fully understood without a solid grounding in the history of American Indian law and policy, and Wilkins provides an outstanding overview.
Один из прямоугольников вдруг закрыла чья-то тень. Даже не взглянув на верхушку башни, Халохот бросился к лестнице. ГЛАВА 99 Фонтейн время от времени стучал кулаком по ладони другой руки, мерил шагами комнату для заседаний, то и дело посматривая на вращающиеся огни шифровалки. - Отключить. Черт побери, немедленно отключить. Мидж появилась в дверях со свежей распечаткой в руке. - Директор, Стратмору не удается отключить ТРАНСТЕКСТ.
Расскажи это Чатрукьяну. Стратмор подошел ближе. - Чатрукьян мертв.
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author. Request full-text PDF.Reply
David E. Wilkins's American Indian Politics and the American. Political System, now in its second edition, is the go-to book both as an American Indian studies.Reply