the motivation-hygiene concept and problems of manpower pdf creator

The motivation-hygiene concept and problems of manpower pdf creator

File Name: the motivation-hygiene concept and problems of manpower
Size: 2166Kb
Published: 02.06.2021

Antonio Davila and Angelo Ditillo

Navigation menu

Two-factor theory

Antonio Davila and Angelo Ditillo

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies.

To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. And the basic tenets of motivation are seen to be: effort, persistence, direction, and goals. Since aftermath of the Second World War the challenges of human resource management HRM have been tense presenting line staff with needs for more sophisticated tools than ever before. Daft, wrote about the ideas W. Japanese organizations and companies achieved as significant departure from the American model by gradually shifting from an inspection-oriented approach to quality control emphasizing employee involvement in the prevention of quality problems.

Theory X states that the worker dislikes work and tries to avoid it. The function of management, therefore, is to force the employee to work, through coercion and threats of punishment.

The worker prefers in most cases to be directed and wants to avoid responsibility. The main motivator for the worker, therefore, is money. Theory Y however, is diametrically the opposite of theory X and states that work is natural and can be a source of satisfaction, and that when it is; the worker can be highly committed and motivated. Workers often seek responsibility and need to be more fully involved with management to become motivated.

Lack of motivation of employees can seriously limit organizational efficiency and effectiveness and it is a symbol of poor management. Most organizations have no idea about how much employee dissatisfaction costs them each year. It is said to lead to stress, absenteeism, labor turnover and etc. However there are some nongovernmental organizations NGOs that have made significant steps in considering motivation as a determinant to employee job performance and organizational performance World Bank, Non-governmental Organizations NGOs are basically volunteer organizations formed to perform defined or stipulated roles to the benefit of the society or a target part of the society without any profits or financial gain out of the activities World Bank, International NGOs in Somalia have extensively promoted and protected the rights of people who have been forced to flee their home areas.

They also undertake basic activities like provision of shelter kits, construction of latrines and water tanks, rehabilitation of schools, vocational training, and livelihood support and assistance to returning refugees World Bank, Statement of the problem Many Non-Governmental organizations in Mogadishu are facing problems related to human resource management.

Quite often there are work place strikes, dissatisfied laborers, employee turnover and poor staff performance all these affects organizational work performance. Some organizations both private and public nearly have collapsed while others are poorly performing.

This study tried to find out whether it is lack of motivation, which responsible for the above problems in NGOs, and also to find out what motivates the staff, and how motivation affect staff performance and thus organizational success.

Motivation theories have provided a basis on which high performance of staff can be realized. The basis of these theories is that the managers and workers should come together as partners as one group accel- team. Knowing how and why to motivate employees is an important managerial skill.

Purpose of the study The purpose of the study was to investigate the correlation between staff motivation and performance of Non-Governmental organizations NGOs in Mogadishu-Somalia. Objectives of the study The study had the following objectives: 1- To establish the profile of NGOs staff working in Mogadishu Somalia.

Research hypotheses The study tested the following hypotheses: H1: There is a positive significant relationship between motivation and employee performance among NGOs in Mogadishu Somalia H0: There is no significant relationship between motivation and employee performance among NGOs in Mogadishu Somalia Scope of the study The geographical scope This study was carried out in the capital city of Somalia-Mogadishu.

Time scope This study covered the period of five years from to Operational Definition of Key Terms Motivation Many contemporary authors have defined the concept of motivation. Simply, a motive is a reason for doing something. Motivation defined as an internal drive to satisfy an unsatisfied need Higgins, Motivation is concerned with the factors that influence people to behave in certain ways Armstrong, For purpose of this study motivation is operationally understood to mean that inner force which drives individuals to accomplish personal and organizational goals.

Organizations An organization is a social entity that is goal directed and deliberately structured daft, This means that an organization is made up of two or more people directed to achieve a given objective. It also means that under an organization, tasks are divided and responsibility for their performance is assigned to organization members. Performance There are different views on what performance is. Performance is Multi- dimensional construct, the measurement of which varies depending on a variety of factors.

Performance is something that a person leaves behind that exists apart from the purpose Armstrong, Although there is a positive relationship between motivation and performance, the relationship is not one-to-one because other factors such as personality, general cognitive ability, emotional intelligence, task understanding, and chance can intervene.

In a well-running work place, motivated employees continually look for ways to improve what they do. Motivation and performance are very complex issues affected by many factors.

No one factor can guarantee motivation or performance in the absence of other critical factors. So in order to improve the performance of the organization, employees need to be motivated to give their best performance and thus organizational effectiveness. Theories of motivation Early explanations of motivation focused on instincts. Psychologists writing in the late 19th and early twentieth century have suggested that human beings were basically programmed to behave in certain ways, depending on the behavioral cues to which they were exposed.

Sigmund Freud for example, argued that the most powerful determinants of individual behavior were those of which the individual was not consciously aware. According to motivation and leadership at work Robbins and Cutler, , in the early twentieth century researchers began to examine other possible explanation for differences in motivation of individuals. Some researchers focused on internal drivers as an explanation for motivated behavior.

Others studied the effect of learning and how individuals base current behavior on the consequences of past behavior. Motivation theories can generally be divided into content theories and process theories of motivation.

Major content theories Content or need theories of motivation focus on factors internal to the individual that energize and direct behavior. Maslow attempted to formulate a needs-based framework of human motivation and based upon his clinical experiences with people, rather than as did the prior psychology theories of his day from authors such as Freud and B.

Skinner, which were largely theoretical or based upon animal behavior. From this theory of motivation, modern leaders and executive managers find means of motivation for the purposes of employee and workforce management.

The basis of Maslow's motivation theory is that human beings are motivated by unsatisfied needs, and that certain lower factors need to be satisfied before higher needs can be satisfied. According to Maslow, there are general types of needs physiological, survival, safety, love, and esteem that must be satisfied before a person can act unselfishly. He called these needs "deficiency needs. Satisfying needs is healthy, while preventing gratification makes us sick or act evilly.

As a result, for adequate workplace motivation, it is important that management understands individual needs which may be used to motivate them for enhanced performance. In this manner, Maslow's model indicates that fundamental, lower-order needs like safety and physiological requirements have to be satisfied in order to pursue higher- level motivators along the lines of self-fulfillment. As depicted in the following hierarchical diagram, sometimes called 'Maslow's Needs Pyramid' or 'Maslow's Needs Triangle', after a need is satisfied it stops acting as a motivator and the next need one rank higher starts to motivate.

Armstrong contends that If Maslow's theory is true, there are some very important leadership implications to enhance workplace motivation. There are staff motivation opportunities by motivating each employee through their style of management, compensation plans, role definition, and company activities.

Deci and Ryan on their part noted that at various points in their lives and careers, various employees will be motivated by completely different needs. It is imperative that managers recognize each employee's needs currently being pursued. In order to motivate their employees, leadership must be understand the current level of needs at which the employee finds themselves, and leverage needs for workplace motivation. Motivator-Hygiene Theory Frederick Herzberg's book 'The Motivation to Work', written with research colleagues Bernard Mausner and Barbara Bloch Snyderman in , first established his theories about motivation in the workplace.

Herzberg's survey work, originally on Pittsburgh engineers and accountants remains a fundamentally important reference in motivational study. While the study involved only people, Herzberg's considerable preparatory investigations, and the design of the research itself, enabled Herzberg and his colleagues to gather and analyse an extremely sophisticated level of data. Herzberg's research used a pioneering approach, based on open questioning and very few assumptions, to gather and analyse details of 'critical incidents' as recalled by the survey respondents.

Herzberg also prepared intensively prior to his study - not least by scrutinizing and comparing the results and methodologies of all previous research studies into job attitudes carried out between and The level of preparation, plus the 'critical incident' aspect and the depth of care and analysis during the project, helped make Herzberg's study such a powerful and sophisticated piece of work.

Herzberg expanded his motivation-hygiene theory in his subsequent books: Work and the Nature of Man ; The Managerial Choice ; and Herzberg on Motivation Significantly, Herzberg commented in , twenty-five years after his theory was first published. In Herzberg wrote the following useful little phrase, which helps explain this fundamental part of his theory, i.

According to Herzberg, Man has two sets of needs; one as an animal to avoid pain, and two as a human being to grow psychologically. He illustrated this also through Biblical example: Adam after his expulsion from Eden having the need for food, warmth, shelter, safety, etc. Certain parallels can clearly be seen with Maslow. Herzberg's ideas relate strongly to modern ethical management and social responsibility, and very directly to the Psychological Contract.

This is remarkable. Herzberg's ideas were developed several decades before proper consideration and description of these more recent and important organizational perspectives. Many decades ago Herzberg, like Maslow, understood well and attempted to teach the ethical management principles that many leaders today, typically in businesses and organizations that lack humanity, still struggle to grasp.

In this respect Herzberg's concepts are just as relevant now as when he first suggested them, except that the implications of responsibility, fairness, justice and compassion in business are now global. Although Herzberg is most noted for his famous 'hygiene' and motivational factors theory, he was essentially concerned with people's well-being at work.

He and others like him did not develop their theories to be used as 'motivational tools' purely to improve organizational performance. They sought instead primarily to explain how to manage people properly, for the good of all people at work.

Herzberg's research proved that people will strive to achieve 'hygiene' needs because they are unhappy without them, but once satisfied the effect soon wears off - satisfaction is temporary. Then as now, poorly managed organizations fail to understand that people are not 'motivated' by addressing 'hygiene' needs. People are only truly motivated by enabling them to reach for and satisfy the factors that Herzberg identified as real motivators, such as achievement, advancement, development, etc.

Herzberg identified a specific category within the study responses which he called 'possibility of growth'.

Navigation menu

Problem Employees Ppt. Bloomberg delivers business and markets news, data, analysis, and video to the world, featuring stories from Businessweek and Bloomberg News on everything pertaining to technology. Need more slides designed in a similar way? Check out full Company Presentation Template here. Aim of the report.

This chapter argues that designing management control systems to enhance creativity requires a fundamental shift in how these systems are conceptualized, namely, as enablers of creativity. Concepts such as diagnostic and interactive, enabling and coercive, and inspirational and directional provide a head start in this respect. Research focused on the link between management control systems and intrinsic motivation, aesthetic creativity, and contextual variables will enhance our understanding of a topic that is central to innovation and increasingly important in establishing competitive advantage. Keywords: Creativity , innovation , management accounting , control , incentives , motivation. Access to the complete content on Oxford Handbooks Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Two-factor theory

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies.

Home QuestionPro Products Workforce. Definition : Employee motivation is defined as the enthusiasm, energy level, commitment and the amount of creativity that an employee brings to the organization on a daily basis. All the definitions that you would read in books or in dictionary relate to the fact that motivation is behavior and one needs to channelize this behavior in order to achieve desired goals and results. Motivation is of two types:.


  • Cevolata 04.06.2021 at 04:15

    Sims 3 game guide pdf why are you suitable for this job sample answer pdf

  • Martin G. 04.06.2021 at 17:52

    Frederick Herzberg () was a US clinical psychologist who later The `​hygiene-motivation' or `two factor' theory resulted from research with two hundred Douglas McGregor (creator of Theory X and Theory Y) - as a reaction to F W Nowadays the concept is more one of people enrichment, although this still.

  • Goliat V. 05.06.2021 at 00:12

    Why are you suitable for this job sample answer pdf essays in english on current topics in india pdf

  • Thomas L. 09.06.2021 at 10:37

    Contactzilla is simple, secure contact management that blends into your existing workflow seamlessly.

  • Rockdirabhie1971 10.06.2021 at 21:50

    ^ Herzberg, Frederick (January–February ). "The Motivation-Hygiene Concept and Problems of Manpower". Personnel Administration (27): 3–7. ^.


Leave a reply