File Name: the humans who went extinct why neanderthals died out and we survived .zip
The causes of disappearance of the Neanderthals, the only human population living in Europe before the arrival of Homo sapiens , have been debated for decades by the scientific community. Different hypotheses have been advanced to explain this demise, such as cognitive, adaptive and cultural inferiority of Neanderthals. Here, we investigate the disappearance of Neanderthals by examining the extent of demographic changes needed over a period of 10, years yrs to lead to their extinction.
Some defining features of their skulls include the large middle part of the face, angled cheek bones, and a huge nose for humidifying and warming cold, dry air. Their bodies were shorter and stockier than ours, another adaptation to living in cold environments. But their brains were just as large as ours and often larger - proportional to their brawnier bodies.
Bruno Maureille unlocks the gate in a chain-link fence, and we walk into the fossil bed past a pile of limestone rubble, the detritus of an earlier dig. We clamber 15 feet down a steep embankment into a swimming pool-size pit. Two hollows in the surrounding limestone indicate where shelters once stood. All around the pit, I now see, are other lithics and fossilized bones. The place, Maureille says, was probably a butchery where Neanderthals in small numbers processed the results of what appear to have been very successful hunts. That finding alone is significant, because for a long time paleoanthropologists have viewed Neanderthals as too dull and too clumsy to use efficient tools, never mind organize a hunt and divvy up the game. Fact is, this site, along with others across Europe and in Asia, is helping overturn the familiar conception of Neanderthals as dumb brutes.
In paleoanthropology , the recent African origin of modern humans , also called the " Out of Africa " theory OOA , recent single-origin hypothesis RSOH , replacement hypothesis , or recent African origin model RAO , is the dominant    model of the geographic origin and early migration of anatomically modern humans Homo sapiens. It follows the early expansions of hominins out of Africa , accomplished by Homo erectus and then Homo neanderthalensis. The model proposes a "single origin" of Homo sapiens in the taxonomic sense, precluding parallel evolution of traits considered anatomically modern in other regions,  but not precluding multiple admixture between H. There were at least several "out-of-Africa" dispersals of modern humans, possibly beginning as early as , years ago, including , years ago to at least Greece ,    and certainly via northern Africa about , to , years ago. The most significant "recent" wave out of Africa took place about 70,—50, years ago,      via the so-called " Southern Route ", spreading rapidly along the coast of Asia and reaching Australia by around 65,—50, years ago,   [note 2] though some researchers question the earlier Australian dates and place the arrival of humans there at 50, years ago at earliest,   while others have suggested that these first settlers of Australia may represent an older wave before the more significant out of Africa migration and thus not necessarily be ancestral to the region's later inhabitants  while Europe was populated by an early offshoot which settled the Near East and Europe less than 55, years ago. In the s, studies in population genetics uncovered evidence of interbreeding that occurred between H. Since the beginning of the 21st century, the picture of "recent single-origin" migrations has become significantly more complex, not only due to the discovery of modern-archaic admixture but also due to the increasing evidence that the "recent out-of-Africa" migration took place in a number of waves spread over a long time period.
Request PDF | On Dec 1, , Ian Tattersall published The Humans Who Went Extinct: Why Neanderthals Died Out and We Survived by Clive.
Metrics details. Genomic evidence has demonstrated that humans and Neanderthals interbred. However, it is still hotly debated why the Neanderthals went extinct and if humans contributed to the Neanderthal extinction. By comparing modern human DNA to the high coverage Neanderthal genome and looking for regions of high similarity, computational biologists have identified thousands of chunks of modern human genomes that came from recent Neanderthal ancestors. Humans and Neanderthals have even been caught in the act of hybridization: when DNA was isolated from a 40,year-old human skeleton from Romania [ 3 ], that individual was shown to be a recent hybrid with a Neanderthal great-great-great-great-grandparent!
Neandertals were an anatomically distinct hominoid species inhabiting a vast geographical area ranging from Portugal to western Siberia and from northern Europe to the Middle East. There has been considerable debate surrounding the main causes of the extinction of Neandertals.
The Humans Who Went Extinct: Why Neanderthals died out and we survived - Kindle edition by Finlayson, Clive. eBook features: Highlight, take notes, and search in the book; In this edition, page numbers are just like the physical edition.Reply
They vanished from the fossil record a few millennia after the first modern humans appeared in Europe ca.Reply
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