the nuclear deception nikita khrushchev and the cuban missile crisis in pdf

The nuclear deception nikita khrushchev and the cuban missile crisis in pdf

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Operation Anadyr

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The Nuclear Deception Nikita Khrushchev And The Cuban Missile Crisis

Operation Anadyr

However, part of it was foiled when the United States discovered the plan, prompting the Cuban Missile Crisis. According to the memoirs of Nikita Khrushchev , the Soviet leader at the time, he and his defense minister, Rodion Malinovsky , were walking on a Black Sea beach in April —discussing the threat posed by the short flight time of US Jupiter missiles deployed in Turkey , which needed about 10 minutes to land in the Soviet Union, as well as the disparity in number of warheads between the Soviet Union and the West—when deploying missiles to Cuba took root in Khrushchev's mind as a way to compensate for these disadvantages.

As Khrushchev put it, he saw the deployment of Soviet missiles in Cuba as "putting one of our hedgehogs down the Americans' trousers".

The initial deployment plan for Operation Anadyr was drafted by General Anatoly Gribkov and two of his assistants sometime after a meeting of the Soviet Defense Council on May 21, , at which Khrushchev's basic idea was discussed and approved. Three would be armed with R medium-range missiles and two armed with R intermediate-range missiles; each regiment would also be equipped with eight launchers and 1.

The total personnel figure for the operation was 50, The forces required an estimated 85 transports to deploy: mostly freighters , but also some passenger liners. Malinovsky approved this deployment plan on July 4, and Khrushchev gave his final approval three days later. It was renamed the th Fighter Aviation Regiment during the deployment. On September 4, some of the surface-to-air antiaircraft missiles and missile boats which deployed ahead of the main missile force were spotted by US reconnaissance flights, and President John F.

Kennedy issued a warning. In response, Khrushchev approved reinforcements: [2] [4]. Since the main missile force had not yet been dispatched, these reinforcements would be shipped along with it. Thanks to his priceless information, the Cuban crisis was not transformed into a last World War. On October 14, photographs were taken by a Lockheed U Operation Anadyr was not only a missile and troop deployment, but also a complex denial and deception campaign.

The Soviet attempt to position nuclear weapons in Cuba occurred under a shroud of great secrecy, both to deny the United States information on the deployment of the missiles and to deceive the United States' political leadership, military, and intelligence services on the Soviets' intentions in Cuba.

The parameters of Anadyr demanded that both medium- and intermediate-range ballistic missiles be deployed to Cuba and operable before their existence was discovered by the United States, and the Soviet General Staff and political leadership turned to radical measures to achieve this. Perhaps the most fundamental deception in Operation Anadyr was the code name itself. To an American intelligence analyst poring over intercepted Soviet military communications, "Anadyr" would suggest anything but a movement of Soviet troops to the Caribbean.

The Anadyr is a river that flows into the Bering Sea , and also the name of a Soviet district capital and a remote bomber base , both in the far north of the Soviet Union. Thus, both American analysts and rank-and-file Soviet soldiers, prone to starting rumors and leaking information, would most likely have expected the operation to be a military exercise in the northern vastness of the USSR.

In the early planning stages of Operation Anadyr, only five senior officers on the General Staff were privy to the details of the deployment or its actual location. They alone prepared every feature of the enterprise, enough work to keep scores of staff busy for weeks, but so stringent was the demand for secrecy that no one else was allowed into this small coterie. The plans were handwritten to deny knowledge of the operation to even a single secretary.

The logistical preparations for Anadyr were equally covert. Foreigners were barred from the ports during this period, and most loading occurred under the cover of darkness. Troops awaiting the voyage were restricted to barracks and denied contact with the outside world. The same restrictions were placed on the sailors of the transport ships.

During the wait, Soviet soldiers kept busy by constructing false superstructures with plywood to hide the ships' defenses, and even on-deck field kitchens. Metal sheets were placed over missiles and missile launchers, which were too large to be stored below decks on most vessels, to prevent detection by infrared surveillance.

Other military equipment was stored below decks. Agricultural equipment and other non-military machinery was placed on deck to add to the subterfuge. Once underway, the Soviet troops were not allowed on deck, except at night, and even then only in small groups. Instructions to the troops and ship crews were carried by special couriers to prevent Western intelligence services from intercepting electronic communications regarding the operation.

The ships' captains received their instructions, which revealed their final destination, only after they had put out to sea. The instructions were given to them by a KGB officer aboard who had been entrusted with the envelope prior to departure.

Every vessel carried thick folders of information on various countries for the officers aboard to review. Only after the destination was revealed were they specifically instructed to study Cuba. Soviet denial and deception measures were equally rigid upon the ships' arrival in Cuba. The vessels unloaded at eleven ports to complicate adversarial surveillance.

The same applied to major troop movements, and Soviet military positions were generally in sparsely populated areas of the island. The Soviet troops were even forbidden to wear their uniforms, in order to make the Soviet military presence deniable.

Instead, they wore civilian attire. Simultaneously, as a false explanation for the presence of the men and equipment, the Soviet media trumpeted the massive agricultural assistance that the Soviets were ostensibly providing to their Cuban comrades. The Soviets employed an equally extensive array of diplomatic ruses to disguise their activities in Cuba. Khrushchev embarked on a tour of the Soviet republics in Central Asia for much of the duration of Anadyr.

During this time, he explicitly avoided all hostile references to the United States. The Soviet ambassador to the United States, Anatoly Dobrynin , was a primary instrument in transmitting diplomatic assurances that only defensive weaponry was being supplied to Cuba.

Kennedy to inform President Kennedy that no ballistic missiles or other offensive armaments had been transported to Cuba. Dobrynin was repeating a message from Khrushchev himself. Later, he would again deny the presence of Soviet missiles in Cuba. Bolshakov met regularly with Robert Kennedy, who believed him to be an honest diplomat and a discreet communications channel to Khrushchev.

Robert Kennedy seemed to personally trust Bolshakov, and President Kennedy came to rely on his information. Throughout the duration of Operation Anadyr, Bolshakov assured the Kennedy brothers that Moscow had no aspirations of turning Cuba into a forward strike base. Bolshakov lost their trust only when the president was shown photographs, taken by a Lockheed U-2 surveillance aircraft, of Soviet ballistic missiles on Cuban soil.

The Soviet media also disseminated misinformation to the public and the world's political leaders. On September 11, the Telegraph Agency of the Soviet Union claimed that the USSR was supplying exclusively defensive weaponry to Cuba to deter American aggression, and that it had no need to place offensive weapons outside of its own soil.

Pravda , the official newspaper of the Soviet Communist Party , even censored elements of a speech made by Cuba's leader, Fidel Castro , that hinted at the Soviets' ability to strike the United States from Cuba.

Kennedy was not the only president whom the Soviets attempted to deceive. They also fed false information to the Communist Party of Cuba , overstating the American threat to Cuba, to persuade Cuban leaders to allow Soviet nuclear weapons to be deployed to the island.

Cuban political leaders, Castro send Che Guevara to a secret meeting with Khrustev on how to proceed with the placement of the military installations and missiles. Contrary to the report the Cuban political leader knew what the Soviets were going to place. Some non-Soviets, however, were privy to accurate information regarding both the American threat and Soviet intentions.

The Soviets knew that information from Cuban exile organizations was perceived by the American intelligence services as highly unreliable. Cuban expatriates, particularly the Truth About Cuba Committee, later condemned the Kennedy administration for its failure to perceive Soviet activities in Cuba despite accurate reports. The Soviet denial and deception campaign was highly effective, but the eventual discovery of the missile emplacements, which occurred after they were operational, was almost inevitable.

American imagery analysis of the Soviet vessels sailing for Cuba had proven fruitless; no indication that the ships carried anything other than non-military equipment was visible. Some American analysts speculated that some of the larger ships might be carrying nuclear-capable ballistic missiles in their holds, but no definitive evidence existed until those missiles were already on Cuban soil. President Kennedy received the images two days later. On October 23, six Vought F-8 Crusader reconnaissance aircraft gathered clearer images from a lower altitude that provided definitive proof of the deployment of Soviet nuclear weapons.

The following morning, President Kennedy authorized the blockade that began the actual crisis. One part of Operation Anadyr was Operation Kama , a plan to station seven Soviet ballistic missile submarines in Mariel, Cuba , much like the United States stations ballistic missile submarines in Holy Loch , Scotland. The operation began on October 1, , with the departure of four diesel-electric attack submarines to the Caribbean Sea to clear the way.

Kama failed independently of Anadyr, with none of the initially deployed attack submarines reaching Cuba. All four of the attack submarines were detected by the blockade of Cuba in the Sargasso Sea and followed closely by American destroyers and ASW aircraft.

One submarine had its rudder damaged and had to be towed back to the USSR. Cecil , and the detection and pursuit of B to a multitude of destroyers and carrier -launched planes.

Three of the four submarines were forced to the surface by U. Navy ships. B-4 was detected by anti-submarine aircraft, but, unlike the other submarines, it had freshly recharged accumulator batteries. Because of this, it was able to remain submerged until it had evaded the pursuing destroyers.

All of the Soviet submarines experienced a wide range of equipment failures, with faulty cooling systems and damage to the ships themselves. Some of them partially surfaced in an attempt to alleviate these problems, which increased the likelihood of detection. Operation Kama ended ignominiously, with three submarines forced to surface within visual range of American ships and the fourth unable to do anything beyond avoid capture.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Anadyr disambiguation. See also: Cuban Missile Crisis. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. January Further information: Russian military deception. Further information: Military deception. Retrieved Retrieved 20 February Soviet Military Intelligence. Grafton Books, London, , p. December Retrieved 16 February

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However, part of it was foiled when the United States discovered the plan, prompting the Cuban Missile Crisis. According to the memoirs of Nikita Khrushchev , the Soviet leader at the time, he and his defense minister, Rodion Malinovsky , were walking on a Black Sea beach in April —discussing the threat posed by the short flight time of US Jupiter missiles deployed in Turkey , which needed about 10 minutes to land in the Soviet Union, as well as the disparity in number of warheads between the Soviet Union and the West—when deploying missiles to Cuba took root in Khrushchev's mind as a way to compensate for these disadvantages. As Khrushchev put it, he saw the deployment of Soviet missiles in Cuba as "putting one of our hedgehogs down the Americans' trousers". The initial deployment plan for Operation Anadyr was drafted by General Anatoly Gribkov and two of his assistants sometime after a meeting of the Soviet Defense Council on May 21, , at which Khrushchev's basic idea was discussed and approved. Three would be armed with R medium-range missiles and two armed with R intermediate-range missiles; each regiment would also be equipped with eight launchers and 1.


Soviet Deception in the Cuban Missile Crisis. James H. Hansen Crisis brought the world to the brink of nuclear var. From its inception, the Soviet missile operation entailed says that, after Nikita Khrushchev decided to.


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The Nuclear Deception Nikita Khrushchev And The Cuban Missile Crisis

The confrontation is often considered the closest the Cold War came to escalating into a full-scale nuclear war. In response to the presence of American Jupiter ballistic missiles in Italy and Turkey , and the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion of , Soviet First Secretary Nikita Khrushchev agreed to Cuba's request to place nuclear missiles on the island to deter a future invasion. An agreement was reached during a secret meeting between Khrushchev and Cuban Prime Minister Fidel Castro in July , and construction of a number of missile launch facilities started later that summer. When this was reported to President John F.

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4 comments

  • Travis W. 03.06.2021 at 21:47

    was the foundation of Nikita Khrushchev's audacious Cuban venture. to discuss Soviet military shipments, including nuclear missiles.

    Reply
  • Joann V. 07.06.2021 at 21:17

    It might perhaps be correct to say that never in history has any historical event assembled such great importance in all of its aspects, and been studied in such depth.

    Reply
  • Nathan H. 10.06.2021 at 08:20

    The Cuban missile crisis of October is generally regarded as the most serious intercept Soviet ships transporting missiles and nuclear warheads to Cuba while morning, General Secretary Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev and his advisors so secretly and with so much deliberate deception — it was so sudden a.

    Reply
  • Gabriel C. 11.06.2021 at 02:29

    On the Soviet end, Premier Nikita Khrushchev wrote in a letter to Kennedy that /​library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/kent-csi/vol46no1/pdf/hampdenlodgethame.org) on The Nuclear Deception: Nikita Khrushchev and the Cuban Missile Crisis.

    Reply

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