File Name: what is the argument an introduction to philosophical argument and analysis .zip
Ordinary language argument examples are explained and diagrammed.
The ultimate court of appeal is observation and experiment In everyday life, people often use "argument" to mean a quarrel between people. But in logic and critical thinking, an argument is a list of statements, one of which is the conclusion and the others are the premises or assumptions of the argument. To give an argument is to provide a set of premises as reasons for accepting the conclusion. To give an argument is not necessarily to attack or criticize someone. Arguments can also be used to support other people's viewpoints.
An ontological argument is a philosophical argument , made from an ontological basis, that is advanced in support of the existence of God. Such arguments tend to refer to the state of being or existing. More specifically, ontological arguments are commonly conceived a priori in regard to the organization of the universe, whereby, if such organizational structure is true, God must exist. The first ontological argument in Western Christian tradition [i] was proposed by Saint Anselm of Canterbury in his work, Proslogion Latin : Proslogium , lit. Therefore, this greatest possible being must exist in reality. Since its initial proposal, few philosophical ideas have generated as much interest and discussion as the ontological argument. Nearly all of the great minds in Western philosophy have found it worthy of their attention.
The best way to introduce students to philosophy and philosophical discourse is to have them read and wrestle with original sources. This textbook explores philosophy through detailed argument analyses of texts by philosophers from Plato to Strawson. It presents a novel and transparent method of analysis that will teach students not only how to understand and evaluate philosophers' arguments but also how to construct such arguments themselves. Students will learn to read a text and discover what the philosopher thinks, why the philosopher thinks it, and whether the supporting argument is good. Students learn argument analysis through argument diagrams, with color-coding of the argument's various elements -- conclusion, claims, and "indicator phrases. Each chapter ends with exercises and reading questions.
Arguments offer proof for a claim, or conclusion. Quite often the arguments have two or more premises and require multiple inferential steps to reach the conclusion. We will encounter examples of more elaborate arguments in the section 1. If we are not convinced by an argument, our pursuit, as students of philosophy, is to devise an objection or rebuttal argument to demonstrate that the original argument is defective. A rebuttal argument, too, is a claim conclusion supported by reasons premises. When we read or listen whether it be philosophical writings or news stories or lectures or political speeches or conversation partners , it is important to differentiate between arguments and other language that is not inferential. Non-inferential language does not offer proof for a claim.
What Is the Argument?: An Introduction to Philosophical Argument and Analysis (MIT Press) by Maralee Harrell PDF, ePub eBook D0wnl0ad.
Is it Persuasive? In The Republic , Plato argues that kings should become philosophers or that philosophers should become kings, or philosopher kings, as they possess a special level of knowledge, which is required to rule the Republic successfully. To deal with the problem of justice, Plato considers the ideal polis, a collective unit of self-government, and the relationship between the structure of the Republic and the attainment of justice.
Good writing is the product of proper training, much practice, and hard work. The following remarks, though they will not guarantee a top quality paper, should help you determine where best to direct your efforts. I offer first some general comments on philosophical writing, and then some specific "do"s and "don't"s. One of the first points to be clear about is that a philosophical essay is quite different from an essay in most other subjects.
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Two competing conceptions of fallacies are that they are false but popular beliefs and that they are deceptively bad arguments.
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По изумлению на лице Чатрукьяна было видно, что он никогда прежде не бывал в этой комнате. Какова бы ни была причина его волнения, когда он колотил в стеклянную стену Третьего узла, она моментально улетучилась. Он разглядывал роскошную внутреннюю отделку, выстроившиеся в ряд компьютеры, диваны, книжные полки, залитые мягким светом. Увидав королеву шифровалки Сьюзан Флетчер, Чатрукьян моментально отвел. Он боялся ее как огня.
What is the Argument? An Introduction to Philosophical Argument and Analysis. MARALEE HARRELL. Cambridge: MIT Press, xiv + pp. $ (paper).Reply
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What is the Argument? An Introduction to Philosophical Argument and Analysis MARALEE HARRELL Cambridge: MIT Press, xiv + pp. $ (paper).Reply