File Name: on language as such and on the language of man .zip
In linguistics , a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with objective or practical meaning.
In many languages, words also correspond to sequences of graphemes "letters" in their standard writing systems that are delimited by spaces wider than the normal inter-letter space, or by other graphical conventions. In many languages, the notion of what constitutes a "word" may be mostly learned as part of learning the writing system.
There still remains no consensus among linguists about the proper definition of "word" in a spoken language that is independent of its writing system, nor about the precise distinction between it and "morpheme".
In English and many other languages, the morphemes that make up a word generally include at least one root such as "rock", "god", "type", "writ", "can", "not" and possibly some affixes "-s", "un-", "-ly", "-ness".
Words with more than one root "[type][writ]er", "[cow][boy]s", "[tele][graph]ically" are called compound words. Words are combined to form other elements of language, such as phrases "a red rock", "put up with" , clauses "I threw a rock" , and sentences "I threw a rock, but missed". There have been many proposed criteria for identifying words. These can be taken as an indication of what constitutes a "word" in the opinion of the writers of that language.
The most appropriate means of measuring the length of a word is by counting its syllables or morphemes. Leonard Bloomfield introduced the concept of "Minimal Free Forms" in Words are thought of as the smallest meaningful unit of speech that can stand by themselves. However, some written words are not minimal free forms as they make no sense by themselves for example, the and of.
Some semanticists have put forward a theory of so-called semantic primitives or semantic primes , indefinable words representing fundamental concepts that are intuitively meaningful. According to this theory, semantic primes serve as the basis for describing the meaning, without circularity, of other words and their associated conceptual denotations. In the Minimalist school of theoretical syntax , words also called lexical items in the literature are construed as "bundles" of linguistic features that are united into a structure with form and meaning.
The task of defining what constitutes a "word" involves determining where one word ends and another word begins—in other words, identifying word boundaries.
There are several ways to determine where the word boundaries of spoken language should be placed: . In languages with a literary tradition , there is interrelation between orthography and the question of what is considered a single word.
Word separators typically spaces are common in modern orthography of languages using alphabetic scripts , but these are excepting isolated precedents a relatively modern development see also history of writing.
In English orthography , compound expressions may contain spaces. For example, ice cream , air raid shelter and get up each are generally considered to consist of more than one word as each of the components are free forms, with the possible exception of get , and so is no one , but the similarly compounded someone and nobody are considered single words.
Not all languages delimit words expressly. Mandarin Chinese is a very analytic language with few inflectional affixes , making it unnecessary to delimit words orthographically. However, there are many multiple-morpheme compounds in Mandarin, as well as a variety of bound morphemes that make it difficult to clearly determine what constitutes a word.
Sometimes, languages which are extremely close grammatically will consider the same order of words in different ways. For example, reflexive verbs in the French infinitive are separate from their respective particle, e. Japanese uses orthographic cues to delimit words, such as switching between kanji Chinese characters and the two kana syllabaries. This is a fairly soft rule, because content words can also be written in hiragana for effect though if done extensively spaces are typically added to maintain legibility.
Vietnamese orthography, although using the Latin alphabet , delimits monosyllabic morphemes rather than words. In character encoding , word segmentation depends on which characters are defined as word dividers. Morphology is the study of word formation and structure. In synthetic languages , a single word stem for example, love may have a number of different forms for example, loves , loving , and loved. However, for some purposes these are not usually considered to be different words, but rather different forms of the same word.
In these languages, words may be considered to be constructed from a number of morphemes. In Indo-European languages in particular, the morphemes distinguished are:. Philosophers have found words objects of fascination since at least the 5th century BC, with the foundation of the philosophy of language. Plato analyzed words in terms of their origins and the sounds making them up, concluding that there was some connection between sound and meaning, though words change a great deal over time.
John Locke wrote that the use of words "is to be sensible marks of ideas", though they are chosen "not by any natural connexion that there is between particular articulate sounds and certain ideas, for then there would be but one language amongst all men; but by a voluntary imposition, whereby such a word is made arbitrarily the mark of such an idea".
Grammar classifies a language's lexicon into several groups of words. The basic bipartite division possible for virtually every natural language is that of nouns vs. The classification into such classes is in the tradition of Dionysius Thrax , who distinguished eight categories: noun , verb , adjective , pronoun , preposition , adverb , conjunction and interjection.
Some words can be controversial, such as slang in formal contexts; misnomers, due to them not meaning what they would imply; or polysemous words, due to the potential confusion between their various senses. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Smallest linguistic element that will be uttered in isolation with semantic or pragmatic content. This article is about the unit of speech and writing. For the Microsoft Office word processor, see Microsoft Word.
For other uses, see Word disambiguation. Outline History Index. General linguistics. Applied linguistics. Acquisition Anthropological Applied Computational Discourse analysis Documentation Forensic History of linguistics Neurolinguistics Philosophy of language Phonetics Psycholinguistics Sociolinguistics Text and corpus linguistics Translating and interpreting Writing systems.
Theoretical frameworks. Further information: Lexeme and Lemma morphology. Main article: Morphology linguistics. Further information: Inflection.
See also: Homonym. Main article: Lexical category. Folia Linguistica. Published in Language , volume 27, issue 3, pages Quote: "an overwhelmingly high percentage of Chinese segmental morphemes bound or free consist of a single syllable; no more than perhaps five percent are longer than one syllable, and only a small handful are shorter.
In this sense — in the sense of the favored canonical shape of morphemes — Chinese is indeed monosyllabic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The Oxford Handbook of the Word. Byrd, and George E. Association for Computational Linguistics, Retrieved 13 March Hamilton, and Ralph B.
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On Language as Such and on the Language of Man. Every expression of human mental life can be understood as a kind of language, and this understanding.
In linguistics , a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with objective or practical meaning. In many languages, words also correspond to sequences of graphemes "letters" in their standard writing systems that are delimited by spaces wider than the normal inter-letter space, or by other graphical conventions. In many languages, the notion of what constitutes a "word" may be mostly learned as part of learning the writing system.
Abstract: Globalization and communication technology are bringing the world closer together in a global village, including language barriers. The things that prevent us from understanding each other's constitute a common challenge to individuals, groups, international companies, governments, nations, and the whole world. This qualitative study aimed at exploring the factors that cause language barriers, their types, and their impact on effective communication and our life as well as ways to make people aware of the importance of overcoming them. The study concluded that language or semantic barriers arise from different subjects such as meanings and uses of words, symbols, images, gestures, languages and dialects. Human communication is a social interaction process. It is an essential part of our daily life. It is a process of creating, exchanging, sharing ideas, information, opinions, facts, feelings, and experiences between a sender and a receiver.
Note: The following text is a transcription of the Stone Engraving of the parchment Declaration of Independence the document on display in the Rotunda at the National Archives Museum. The spelling and punctuation reflects the original. The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America, When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation. We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed.