crossroads and cultures a history of the world"s peoples pdf writer

Crossroads and cultures a history of the world"s peoples pdf writer

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The rise of agrarian-based citied societies

Culture, a shared set of traditions, belief systems, and behaviors, is shaped by history, religion, ethnic identity, language, and nationality, among other factors. The Middle East consists of approximately 20 countries, with many different religions and a variety of ethnic and linguistic groups. Given this diversity, we should not be surprised to find a multitude of different cultures coexisting in the region.

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Islamic world , also called Islamdom , the complex of societies and cultures in which Muslims and their faith have been prevalent and socially dominant.

Adherence to Islam is a global phenomenon: Muslims predominate in some 30 to 40 countries, from the Atlantic eastward to the Pacific and along a belt that stretches across northern Africa into Central Asia and south to the northern regions of the Indian subcontinent.

Arabs account for fewer than one-fifth of all Muslims, more than half of whom live east of Karachi , Pakistan. Despite the absence of large-scale Islamic political entities, the Islamic faith continues to expand, by some estimates faster than any other major religion. The Muslim religion and the life of the Prophet Muhammad are treated specifically in the article Islam. The literature, music, dance, and visual arts of Muslim peoples are treated in the article Islamic arts.

Islam is also discussed in articles on individual countries or on regions in which the religion is a factor, such as Egypt , Iran , Arabia , and North Africa. In general, events referred to in this article are dated according to the Gregorian calendar , and eras are designated bce before the Common Era or Christian Era and ce Common Era or Christian Era , terms which are equivalent to bc before Christ and ad Latin: anno Domini.

In some cases the Muslim reckoning of the Islamic era is used, indicated by ah Latin: anno Hegirae. In what follows, the terms Islamic world and Islamdom are used interchangeably.

The term Islamicate refers to the social and cultural complex that is historically associated with Islam and the Muslims, including the function and participation of non-Islamic and non-Muslim individuals and groups within that complex. The potential for Muslim empire building was established with the rise of the earliest civilizations in western Asia. It was facilitated by the expansion of trade from eastern Asia to the Mediterranean and by the political changes thus effected. The Muslims were heirs to the ancient Egyptians, Babylonians, Persians, Hebrews, even the Greeks and Indians; the societies they created bridged time and space, from ancient to modern and from east to west.

The factors that surrounded and directed their accomplishment had begun to coalesce long before, with the emergence of agrarian-based citied societies in western Asia in the 4th millennium bce. The rise of complex agrarian-based societies, such as Sumer , out of a subsistence agricultural and pastoralist environment , involved the founding of cities, the extension of citied power over surrounding villages, and the interaction of both with pastoralists.

This type of social organization offered new possibilities. Agricultural production and intercity trading, particularly in luxury goods, increased. Some individuals were able to take advantage of the manual labour of others to amass enough wealth to patronize a wide range of arts and crafts; of these, a few were able to establish territorial monarchies and foster religious institutions with wider appeal. Gradually the familiar troika of court, temple, and market emerged.

The new ruling groups cultivated skills for administering and integrating non-kin-related groups. They benefited from the increased use of writing and, in many cases, from the adoption of a single writing system, such as the cuneiform , for administrative use. New institutions, such as coinage, territorial deities, royal priesthoods, and standing armies, further enhanced their power. In such town-and-country complexes the pace of change quickened enough so that a well-placed individual might see the effects of his actions in his own lifetime and be stimulated to self-criticism and moral reflection of an unprecedented sort.

The religion of these new social entities reflected and supported the new social environments. Unlike the religions of small groups, the religions of complex societies focused on deities, such as Marduk , Isis , or Mithra , whose appeal was not limited to one small area or group and whose powers were much less fragmented.

The relationship of earthly existence to the afterlife became more problematic, as evidenced by the elaborate death rites of pharaonic Egypt.

Individual religious action began to compete with communal worship and ritual; sometimes it promised spiritual transformation and transcendence of a new sort, as illustrated in the pan-Mediterranean mystery religions. Yet large-scale organization had introduced social and economic injustices that rulers and religions could address but not resolve. To many, an absolute ruler uniting a plurality of ethnic, religious, and interest groups offered the best hope of justice.

Islamic world Article Media Additional Info. Article Contents. Table Of Contents. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback External Websites. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login.

External Websites. Marilyn R. See Article History. Britannica Quiz. Do you believe you know all there is to know about faith around the globe? From temples to festivals, this quiz explores creeds and cultures.

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North America, the third-largest continent , extends from the tiny Aleutian Islands in the northwest to the Isthmus of Panama in the south. Vespucci was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not part of the East Indies , but an entirely separate landmass. The portions of the landmass that widened out north of the Isthmus of Panama became known as North America. From their beginnings to the present day, the peoples of North America have worked with and against their surroundings in order to survive and prosper. Historic Cultures Indigenous cultures shaped, and were shaped by, the geography of North America.

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Italy is considered one of the birthplaces of western civilization and a cultural superpower. During its history, the nation has given birth to an enormous number of notable people. Italy was home to many well-known and influential civilizations, including the Etruscans , Samnites and the Romans , while also hosting colonies from important foreign civilizations like the Phoenicians and Greeks , whose influence and culture had a large impact through the peninsula. Etruscan and Samnite cultures flourished in Italy before the emergence of the Roman Republic, which conquered and incorporated them. Phoenicians and Greeks established settlements in Italy beginning several centuries before the birth of Christ, and the Greek settlements in particular developed into thriving classical civilizations.

Islamic world , also called Islamdom , the complex of societies and cultures in which Muslims and their faith have been prevalent and socially dominant. Adherence to Islam is a global phenomenon: Muslims predominate in some 30 to 40 countries, from the Atlantic eastward to the Pacific and along a belt that stretches across northern Africa into Central Asia and south to the northern regions of the Indian subcontinent. Arabs account for fewer than one-fifth of all Muslims, more than half of whom live east of Karachi , Pakistan.

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Since the s, many scholars have explored ideas about culture and context and have also asked questions about the act of investigating such things. Understandings of race and ethnicity, cultural values, historical perspectives, modes of communication, and the importance attached to different kinds of knowledge and skill are just a few of the topics that have been examined and reexamined as researchers have sought to understand the complex dynamics between culture, context, and learning.

Cultural Intelligence

The culture of Saudi Arabia is a rich one that has been shaped by its Islamic heritage, its historical role as an ancient trade center, and its Bedouin traditions. Saudi society has experienced tremendous development over the past several decades.

The rise of agrarian-based citied societies

He actually lived there trying to uncover this system, and getting to know the people that he was observing. His approach displays both emic detail, the stories and explanations given by Primo and Cesar, as well as etic analysis attributing workplace discrimination to the FIRE economy. An etic view of a culture is the perspective of an outsider looking in. Some anthropologists may take this approach to avoid altering the culture that they are studying by direct interaction. The etic perspective is data gathering by outsiders that yield questions posed by outsiders. One problem that anthropologists may run in to is that people tend to act differently when they are being observed. It is especially hard for an outsider to gain access to certain private rituals, which may be important for understanding a culture.

Instead of just tracing the past of nations, these collections aim to provide a greater understanding of civilizations. The world's memory is composed of more than just kings and heroes, battles and conquests, great cathedrals and monumental undertakings. Through this broad perspective, readers gain a global understanding of the evolution of societies, flourishing of cultures, major currents of exchange and interaction with other parts of the world. These collections also aim to provide a culturally relevant perspective. They provide the point of view of the populations concerned, whose past has often been distorted, discredited or treated as peripheral to the history of the colonizers and the dominant nations — those who usually write history. The idea here is to rediscover a people's consciousness and the vision it develops of its own destiny.

Knowing what makes groups tick is as important as understanding individuals. Successful managers learn to cope with different national, corporate, and vocational cultures.

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 - Я полагаю, у этого алгоритма меняющийся открытый текст. Сьюзан затаила дыхание. Первое упоминание о меняющемся открытом тексте впервые появилось в забытом докладе венгерского математика Джозефа Харне, сделанном в 1987 году. Ввиду того что компьютеры, действующие по принципу грубой силы, отыскивают шифр путем изучения открытого текста на предмет наличия в нем узнаваемых словосочетаний, Харне предложил шифровальный алгоритм, который, помимо шифрования, постоянно видоизменял открытый текст. Теоретически постоянная мутация такого рода должна привести к тому, что компьютер, атакующий шифр, никогда не найдет узнаваемое словосочетание и не поймет, нашел ли он искомый ключ. Вся эта концепция чем-то напоминала идею колонизации Марса - на интеллектуальном уровне вполне осуществимую, но в настоящее время выходящую за границы человеческих возможностей.

General and Regional Histories

 - В голосе мужчины чувствовалось какая-то озабоченность.  - Я нашел его в паспорте и хочу разыскать владельца. Сердце Ролдана упало.

3 comments

  • Thierry D. 08.06.2021 at 05:10

    The chapters in turn show different ways of writing This emphasis on people who have been left out of world history is highlighted with extraordinary eBook crossroads and cultures volume i to | [PDF] Download for free. It is.

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  • Marcel K. 10.06.2021 at 19:22

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  • Aceline D. 11.06.2021 at 22:11

    Crossroads and Cultures: A History of the World's Peoples incorporates the best current cultural history Consequently, the volume is addressed to a wide scope of both scholars and architecture; and (3) religion, law, language, and writing.

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