File Name: the rise and fall of the catholic religious orders .zip
China has witnessed a religious revival over the past four decades, in particular with a significant increase in Christian believers. The number of Chinese Protestants has grown by an average of 10 percent annually since
About Follow Donate. Demographic Study. Historians and social scientists have written about this relationship and about how the two may influence each other. This chapter presents a broad overview of scholarly research into the ways religion can affect educational achievement.
In 16th-century Christianity , Protestantism came to the forefront and marked a significant change in the Christian world. During the age of discovery the Roman Catholic Church established a number of missions in the Americas and other colonies in order to spread Christianity in the New World and to convert the indigenous peoples. Under the Padroado treaty with the Holy See , by which the Vatican delegated to the kings the administration of the local churches, the Portuguese sent missions into Africa , Brasil and Asia. While some of these missions were associated with imperialism and oppression, others notably Matteo Ricci 's Jesuit China missions were relatively peaceful and focused on integration rather than cultural imperialism. The expansion of the Catholic Portuguese Empire and Spanish Empire with a significant role played by the Roman Catholic Church led to the Christianization of the indigenous populations of the Americas such as the Aztecs and Incas.
The most traumatic era in the entire history of Roman Catholicism, some have argued, was the period from the middle of the 14th century to the middle of the 16th. This was the time when Protestantism , through its definitive break with Roman Catholicism, arose to take its place on the Christian map. The spectre of many national churches supplanting a unitary Catholic church became a grim reality during the age of the Reformation. What neither heresy nor schism had been able to do before—divide Western Christendom permanently and irreversibly—was done by a movement that confessed a loyalty to the orthodox creeds of Christendom and professed an abhorrence for schism. By the time the Reformation was over, a number of new Christian churches had emerged and the Roman Catholic Church had come to define its place in the new order. Whatever its nonreligious causes may have been, the Protestant Reformation arose within Roman Catholicism; there both its positive accomplishments and its negative effects had their roots. The standing of the church within the political order and the class structure of western Europe was irrevocably altered in the course of the later Middle Ages.
Gemma Betros examines the problems the Revolution posed for religion, and that religion posed for the Revolution. In , the year of the outbreak of the French Revolution, Catholicism was the official religion of the French state. The French Catholic Church, known as the Gallican Church, recognised the authority of the pope as head of the Roman Catholic Church but had negotiated certain liberties that privileged the authority of the French monarch, giving it a distinct national identity characterised by considerable autonomy. Being French effectively meant being Catholic. How did it come to this? What did revolutionaries hope to achieve?
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Roman Catholicism , Christian church that has been the decisive spiritual force in the history of Western civilization. Along with Eastern Orthodoxy and Protestantism , it is one of the three major branches of Christianity. Christianity is an important world religion that stems from the life, teachings, and death of Jesus. Roman Catholicism is the largest of the three major branches of Christianity.
Жжение в горле заставило ее собраться с мыслями. Стоя на ковре возле письменного стола, она в растерянности осматривала кабинет шефа. Комнату освещали лишь странные оранжевые блики. В воздухе пахло жженой пластмассой. Вообще говоря, это была не комната, а рушащееся убежище: шторы горели, плексигласовые стены плавились.
Но мы не имеем права сообщать информацию личного характера… - Это очень важно, - настаивал Беккер. - Мне просто нужно узнать, улетела ли. И больше. Женщина сочувственно кивнула. - Поссорились.
- Она выдержала паузу. - Постараюсь побыстрее. - А лучше еще быстрее. - Стратмор положил трубку. Сьюзан стояла, завернувшись в мохнатое полотенце, не замечая, что вода капает на аккуратно сложенные веши, приготовленные накануне: шорты, свитер - на случай прохладных вечеров в горах, - новую ночную рубашку. Расстроенная, она подошла к шкафу, чтобы достать чистую блузку и юбку. Чрезвычайная ситуация.
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