construction and demolition waste pdf

Construction and demolition waste pdf

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Definition of the Subject and Its Importance

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Under Strategy 11 of the National Waste Policy, all governments are committed to encouraging best practice waste management and resource recovery for construction and demolition projects. A total of

Previous study estimates have ranged from 29 percent in to 24 percent in Many of these materials can be reused or recycled, thus prolonging our supply of natural resources and potentially saving money in the process. Of these, metals are the most commonly recycled material while lumber makes up the majority of debris that still goes to a landfill.

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Jhankar Gupta. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. Growing rate of waste generation has led to various environmental problems. Growing concern for the environment, measures are being adopted worldwide to reduce, reuse and recycle the construction and demolition waste in building and infrastructure construction.

As an architect, we must know the measures and the processes involved in waste treatment so that we contribute in sustainable development.

Developed countries have already incorporated policies to treat waste but why are we lacking? What are the main causes? How can these problems be solved? The paper discusses why we need to utilise construction and demolition waste and how it can be used in building practices. The procedure would initially define the problem and the causes associated with it. Further, ways and methods of treating waste would be dicussed to find solutions for the problem. This would be supported by case studies, which are further critically analyzed, finally leading to conclusions.

However, it is also the largest producer of waste in our country. In case of demolition or renovation, the amount of waste generated is times more than the waste generated by new construction. Additionally, when any disaster occurs, the total amount of construction waste exceeds the amount of solid waste collected in years. Even though we have a huge contribution from construction industry, we are short of ways to treat the enormous amount of waste that is generated from this sector.

Ongoing practices of construction and demolition waste management and advantages of reusing this waste will be presented to support the topic. Figure 1 schematically represents the life-cycle of a building and indicates the use of materials and the waste generated during this life-cycle.

The bigger challenge that arrives here is that how can we reduce or eliminate the wastes that follow the various paths leading to landfill. The overall problem exists due to the factors such as the use of materials that have no potential for future reuse or recycling, the use of inefficient materials, and the use of designs and details that result in excessive waste when executed at the job site. This volume is expected to increase to 2. Building materials account for about half of all materials used and about half the solid waste generated worldwide.

Over the last eight years, it would have produced MT of this waste. Demolition projects often produce times as much waste materials per square meter as construction projects. Construction waste normally contains more modern building materials than demolition waste since new buildings are rarely torn down. In addition, demolition waste is often contaminated with paint, adhesives and dirt and the materials can be securely fastened together making separation more difficult.

The two cases shown below tell us the difference between the waste stream generated in case of new construction and in case of demolition. For example, the waste generated from new construction is mostly clean, can be sorted easily and recycled or reused with ease. However, in case of demolition and renovation work, the waste generated is generally mixed unless selected demolition process is adopted for demolition.

Separating mixed debris waste demands technical knowledge, machinery and proper management. Figure 4 will help us in understanding the kind of waste generated from different sources. The demolition waste from hospitals, schools and factories is considered hazardous as it may contain toxic waste present in laboratories.

Therefore, it is necessary to understand the source of waste before executing any waste management plan. In fact, according to construction agencies like CPWD , Indian laws permit the use of only naturally sourced building material. The IS: Indian standard specification related to aggregates for concrete, laid down by the Bureau of Indian Standards BIS , stipulates that concrete can be made only with naturally accessed materials.

It allows us to identify all recyclable materials and know how to manage them before the job starts. It allows us to assess the economic benefits of recycling and decide which materials can be feasibly reused.

Along with proper management of waste, it is important to identify the favourable stages for waste management. Demirbas identified four critical factors for an integrated waste management which comprised of source reduction, reuse, recycling, landfill and gas-to-energy and waste-to-energy conversion namely-reduce, reuse, recycle, compost, incinerate and landfill. The aim of the waste hierarchy was to extract the maximum practical benefits from products and generate the minimum amount of waste.

All around the world, there is an increasing emphasis on reducing the environmental impacts of renovation and new construction. Recycling Construction and Demolition waste is one of the most important aspects of this movement.

These factors include the arrival of many current landfills at full capacity, the high cost of building landfills with adequate environmental protection, public resistance to the construction of local landfills and an increased interest in reducing demand for natural resources while creating a sustainable construction industry.

For example, due to increase construction in Gurgaon, a lot of construction waste got collected in various places in the city. Construction and demolition wastes are one of the largest waste streams in the country. Construction industry contributes to half of the total solid waste generated. In case of disasters, this amount multiplies into hundreds. It is estimated that the total solid waste generated in India is about million tonnes of which the construction waste alone is Construction and Demolition waste in India during is estimated as 55 million tonnes.

Almost all job site wastes are recyclable until it is mixed Unless it is a case of mixed debris, almost all job site wastes are recyclable. Moreover, if a proper method of demolition is adopted i.

Whether in its original form or mixed with other material to form new form, all the materials available on such sites can be recycled. Table 2 provides information on how recycling of certain construction materials can be utilised: Table 2: Reusable and Recycled uses of Construction and Demolition Waste Materials Reuse or Recycle Aggregates - Aggregates commonly recycled for filling roads and building foundation - Recycled concrete used as aggregate in production of new concrete Asphalt Shingles - Used in asphalt pavement and other road construction - Used as a fuel Clean Wood -can be used as architectural woodwork, heavy timbers and flooring Contaminated -can be used as fuel Wood Treated Wood -has high potential for reuse Gypsum Board -Can be recycled to produce new gypsum board or cement -Recycled gypsum board can be used as soil amendment Metals -Structural Steel and aluminium products can be reused if dismantled properly -Recycled metal waste can be put to various uses Plastics -PVC Windows and door frames as well as gutters can be easily reused Ceiling Tiles Can be reused and recycled in various forms 3.

Recycling costs less than Throwing away In almost all cases, the cost of recycling is lower than the cost of throwing materials away. Cost of recycling can be calculated as shown in figure 5. However, there are situations where recycling of waste is not an economical option but only an environmental solution. In such situations, different alternatives that can treat the waste without causing any harm to the environment should be thought of.

Demolition and Recycling Figure 5 Economic model of i traditional demolition and waste handling without recylcing and ii demolition and waste handling including recycling of materials A: Amount of natural materials and transportation B: Amount of transportation and disposal of waste materials X:Amount of recycled materials 3. Source separation means separating different recyclable materials at the job site. Different materials are kept in different containers and then put to use or transferred to recycling plant.

Commingled recycling means placing all the recyclable materials into single container, which is then transported to a processing facility, where different materials are separated by hand or by automated equipment. Both the processes have their own limitations and advantages.

Table 3 tell us the advantages and disadvantages of both the processes. For instance, if in an area huge demolition is to take place, then it is advisable to install a recycling plant on the site itself.

In redevelopment of East Kidwai Nagar, Delhi, massive demolition of old structures was to take place. The only available recycling plant was 30kms away from the site. So, in order to save on transportation costs and also utilise building waste in rebuilding practices, a recycling was installed on site which recycles about tonne of construction and demolition waste daily. This example explains how source separation on the site itself helped in reclaiming maximum from the waste at minimum cost.

The other example if commingled waste recycling process. In Delhi, about tonnes of construction and demolition waste is generated on daily basis. Over here, waste collected from different areas in Delhi is transported and then separated through machines. The separated material is either reused in its original form or is mixed with other materials to form new products which can be used in building or infrastructure construction.

Apart from the different processes for handling waste, there is particular order of operations that need to be followed in order to systematically treat the mixed debris. Figure 6 explains the process followed at the recycling plant. The process followed by this plant can also be implemented on sites where there is huge demolition or generation of construction waste in order to reduce the recycling costs due to transportation of debris.

Recycling has been found as an effective way of managing waste for energy efficiency, economy and environmental benefits. Management of building waste through recycling and re-use has been found as an effective way of managing waste due to energy, economy and environmental efficiency. The sustainable approach of development demands minimizing and utilizing waste materials by re- cycling and re-use.

Recycling of construction waste is still a fancy concept in Indian context. The reason behind this is are the laws which permit the use of only naturally sourced building material. In addition, developers also dump construction and demolition waste over wetlands to convert them to land for future development. All these factors are stoping the efficiency of recycling construction and demolition waste. The BIS has already set a precedent: it has introduced exception clauses for flyash usage in the manufacturing of building materials.

New products manufactured by using recycled waste can be certified under this scheme. Therefore, if proper amendments are made in the current laws that permit the use of recycled materials, then the problem of ever growing construction and demolition waste will be easily solved. The hall and small seed shed containing an Indigenous plant nursery were constructed bale-by-bale by local residents and other volunteers from Sydney.

The main body of the hall was built from straw bales and rendered with mud. The building uses recycled materials for doors, frames and fittings. Paints and finishes are also environmentally friendly. The hall has been in use since and the concrete slab is performing well. Fairfield City Council aimed to deliver a community building that would inspire the community to make more environmentally sustainable choices in their day-to-day routines. Since the mids the construction industry was aware that concrete foundation slabs may provide the widest and most economical field of application for recycled concrete.

Definition of the Subject and Its Importance

The construction and demolition waste is one of the heaviest and most voluminous waste streams generated in the European Union. It comprises approximately one third of the waste generated. Recycling this stream waste will provide ecological and sustainable benefits. The recycled aggregates from the construction and demolition waste are beginning to be used in civil construction, as substitutes for natural aggregates. The possible applications of recycled aggregates in the infrastructure construction projects will mainly depend on the quality of the recycled aggregates. This will be determined by the nature and the origin of the construction and demolition waste, and the treatment system used.

The construction and demolition waste is one of the heaviest and most voluminous waste streams generated in the European Union. It comprises approximately one third of the waste generated. Recycling this stream waste will provide ecological and sustainable benefits. The recycled aggregates from the construction and demolition waste are beginning to be used in civil construction, as substitutes for natural aggregates. The possible applications of recycled aggregates in the infrastructure construction projects will mainly depend on the quality of the recycled aggregates. This will be determined by the nature and the origin of the construction and demolition waste, and the treatment system used.

Construction and demolition waste comprises a wide variety of materials including concrete, metals, timber, ceramics, soil, plaster, asphalt, and polymers which arise either during construction, renovation, or demolition activities. As a result, it is often identified as an area in which great potential exists for enhancing sustainability through reduction, reuse, and recycling. As such activities grow, the importance of adopting the most sustainable approaches to managing this waste has started to be recognized as the key to moving toward a wholly sustainable Skip to main content Skip to table of contents. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available. Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology Edition.


Demolition waste is waste debris from destruction of a construction. Construction industry in India generates about million Tons of waste.


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Estimation of construction and demolition waste 3. An economic analysis of the processing technologies in CDW recycling platforms 4. Management of demolition waste 5.

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Advances in Construction and Demolition Waste Recycling

Hennepin County staff conduct pre-demolition inspections of residential and commercial properties to help ensure regulated materials are removed prior to demolition. The inspector provides an inspection report to the contractor to further explain contractor responsibilities, including follow up disposal documentation. A follow up inspection is generally not required.

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Молчание. Хейл сразу же растерялся, не зная, как истолковать примирительный тон коммандера, и немного ослабил хватку на горле Сьюзан. - Н-ну, - заикаясь начал он, и голос его внезапно задрожал.  - Первым делом вы отдаете мне пистолет. И оба идете со. - В качестве заложников? - холодно усмехнулся Стратмор.

Ни перед чем не останавливаться, только бы заполучить кольцо. Беккера очень удивило, что это кольцо с какой-то невразумительной надписью представляет собой такую важность. Однако Стратмор ничего не объяснил, а Беккер не решился спросить. АНБ, - подумал.  - НБ - это, конечно, не болтай.

Используя вместо классной доски салфетки ресторана Мерлутти или концертные программы, Сьюзан дала этому популярному и очень привлекательному преподавателю первые уроки криптографии.

State and Local Government Construction and Demolition (C&D) Materials Measurement Reports

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 - Я их сразу узнаю. Он гулял в парке с подружкой. Беккер понял, что с каждой минутой дело все больше запутывается. - С подружкой. Немец был не .

Advances in Construction and Demolition Waste Recycling

Стратмор пожал плечами. - Слабое сердце… да к тому же еще испанская жара. Не забывай и о сильнейшем стрессе, связанном с попыткой шантажировать наше агентство… Сьюзан замолчала.

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