File Name: the existence of god and the beginning of the universe .zip
From his desk at Cambridge University and beyond, Stephen Hawking sent his mind spiraling into the deepest depths of black holes, radiating across the endless cosmos and swirling back billions of years to witness time's first breath. He viewed creation as a scientist, and when he was called to discuss creation's biggest puzzles — Where do we come from? What is our purpose? Are we alone? Hawking's answer — compiled from decades of prior interviews, essays and speeches with the help of his family, colleagues and the Steven Hawking Estate — should come as no surprise to readers who have followed his work, er, religiously. From this speck emerged all the matter, energy and empty space that the universe would ever contain, and all that raw material evolved into the cosmos we perceive today by following a strict set of scientific laws. To Hawking and many like-minded scientists, the combined laws of gravity, relativity, quantum physics and a few other rules could explain everything that ever happened or ever will happen in our known universe.
A cosmological argument , in natural theology , is an argument which claims that the existence of God can be inferred from facts concerning causation , explanation, change, motion, contingency, dependency, or finitude with respect to the universe or some totality of objects. Whichever term is employed, there are three basic variants of the argument, each with subtle yet important distinctions: the arguments from in causa causality , in esse essentiality , and in fieri becoming. The basic premises of all of these arguments involve the concept of causation. The conclusion of these arguments is first cause for whichever group of things it is being argued has a cause or a sufficient reason of the cosmos, subsequently deemed to be a God or gods. The history of this argument goes back to Aristotle or earlier, was developed in Neoplatonism and early Christianity and later in medieval Islamic theology during the 9th to 12th centuries, and was re-introduced to medieval Christian theology in the 13th century by Thomas Aquinas. The cosmological argument is closely related to the principle of sufficient reason as addressed by Gottfried Leibniz and Samuel Clarke , itself a modern exposition of the claim that " nothing comes from nothing " attributed to Parmenides.
Was the big bang really the beginning of time? Or did the universe exist before then? Such a question seemed almost blasphemous only a decade ago. Most cosmologists insisted that it simply made no sense--that to contemplate a time before the big bang was like asking for directions to a place north of the North Pole. But developments in theoretical physics, especially the rise of string theory, have changed their perspective. The pre-bang universe has become the latest frontier of cosmology.
In many religious traditions, one of the standard roles of the deity has been to create the universe. The first line of the Bible, Genesis , is a plain statement of this role. For the purposes of this essay, however, we will limit ourselves to versions of God that play some role in explaining the world we see.
Don't have an account? This chapter argues that there is sufficient evidence at present to warrant the conclusion that the universe probably began to exist over 10 billion years ago and that it began to exist without being caused to do so. It also provides counter-arguments to the propositions that the universe was caused by God and that the universe is probably infinitely old. It analyses quantum mechanical considerations and concludes that the argument for a divine cause of the Big Bang based on the causal principle is unsuccessful. Oxford Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service.
Thomas Aquinas c is arguably the most important Catholic theologian in history. In his major work Summa Theologica, widely considered as the highest achievement of medieval systematic theology, Aquinas presented his five proofs of God's existence known as the Quinque Viae Latin for "Five Ways". The fact, to Thomas, that every moving thing needs a mover shows that God, the Unmoved Mover, exists. For the series of causes and effects, that we see in the world, to make sense it must have a beginning. God, the First Cause, therefore exists. However, if all things are contingent, there could not have been anything as at one time all these could be non-existent. To account for all existence, there must be a Necessary Being, God.
The problem of the creator of God is the controversy regarding the hypothetical cause responsible for the existence of God , presuming God exists. It contests the proposition that the universe cannot exist without a creator by asserting that the creator of the universe must have the same restrictions. This, in turn, may lead to a problem of infinite regress wherein each newly presumed creator of a creator is itself presumed to have its own creator.
The Existence of God and the. Beginning of the Universe. William Lane Craig. The kalam cosmological argument, by showing that the universe began to exist.Reply
The kalam cosmological argument, by showing that the universe began to exist, demonstrates that the world is not a necessary being and, therefore, not.Reply