File Name: chapter 14 lymphatic system and immunity copy of textbook .zip
While an understanding of the structure and function of a generically described immune system is essential in contemporary biomedicine, it is clear that a one-size-fits-all approach applied across multiple species is fraught with contradictions and inconsistencies. Nevertheless, the breakthroughs achieved in immunology following the application of observations in murine systems to that of man have been pivotal in the advancement of biology and human medicine. However, as additional species have been used to further address biologic and safety assessment questions relative to the structure and function of the immune system, it has become clear that there are differences across species, gender, age and strain that must be considered. The meaningfulness of these differences must be determined on a case-by-case basis.
The walls are thin to allow the fluid called lymph to enter the small vessels. They are thinner walled than veins and contain valves at intervals to help the fluid not back up. They are named for where they are in the body. Thoracic duct: larger and longer collecting duct; receives lymph from lower limbs, abdominal region, left arm, left side of the head, thorax and neck; empties into the left subclavian vein.
Right lymphatic duct: receives lymph from right side of the head and neck, right arm, and right thorax; empties into the right subclavian vein. Tissue Fluid and Lymph: -Lymph is fluid from all tissues, so it depends on what tissue it originated from how lymph was formed. It has the same general composition as blood plasma but is missing the plasma proteins.
Unfortunately this means that lymph transports ALL bodies through lymph nodes. This includes any and all small proteins that leach out of the capillaries as well as bacteria, viruses, and foreign bodies. Lymph Movement: -Hyrdostatic pressure of tissue fluid forces the lymph into the lymphatic capillaries, but lymph movement is also largely affected by muscle contraction. Pressure is low, so the smooth muscles along the walls of larger lymph vessels as well as the pressure change during breathing help raise the pressure.
Without the right amount of fluid in the vessels, lymph can accumulate and sit. Lymph Nodes: -Lymph nodes are basically lymph glands, and they contain lymphocytes and macrophages that both fight infections. These lymph nodules masses are the structural units of the lymph node. Macrophages are most heavily concentrated in the sinuses. Lymphocytes attack invaders and bring them to the nodes, macrophages eat them.
Most are inactive, but some mature into T cells. T cells leave the thymus and provide immunity for the body. Red pulp: fills the remaining space of the spleen; surrounds the venous sinuses; contains red blood cells, lymphocytes and macrophages. Older red blood cells tend to rupture during this passage, and the macrophages phagocitize the debris, along with any bacteria or foreign bodies that come through the spleen.
Defense Innate vs. Adaptive: -Pathogen: disease-causing agent; bacteria, virus, fungi, protozoans. Innate nonspecific defense: a mechanism that provides general protection; species resistance, mechanical and chemical barriers, fever, inflammation, phagocytosis; rapid response. Adaptive specific defense: also called immunity; precise targeting system; slow response time. Another was causing panic three years ago.
What are they? Mechanical barriers: all mucous membranes and skin I told you we love our mucous membranes that line the passages of the digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive systems, along with the hair that traps foreign bodies. Chemical barriers: enzymes in body fluids that destroy foreign bodies. Fever: high body temperature stimulates the liver and spleen to hold iron from the blood, which is required by bacteria and fungi to maintain their growth and reproduction.
Inflammation: tissue response to injury or illness, results in swelling, pain, tenderness, and heat. Increased circulation brings more phagocytes to take care of foreign bodies.
Pus is a byproduct of an accumulation of damaged tissue, bacterial cells, and the mass of leukocytes. Phagocytosis: the process of eating and destroying any invading or harmful particles, usually occurs in the lymph fluid, or in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow if particles reach the blood. Antigens: can be proteins, polysaccharides, glycoproteins, or glycolipids, but are located on the surface of cells.
Antigens tell the lymphatic system which cells are self and which cells are not. Lyphocytes are first made in red marrow during fetal development, but they are undifferentiated. Cellular immune response: cell-to-cell contact where T cells attach to foreign antigen-bearing cells and interact directly with the bacteria, virus or fungi.
These cytotoxic T cells make up most of the immune responses in the body, and are the targeted T cells by HIV. If so, where did they get them? Antibodies: -In general they bind to antigens and cause them to clump, or agglutinate. Primary immune response: activation of T and B cells after the first encounter with antigens.
Secondary immune response: memory cells stick around after the immune system had begun to fight off invading cells and can quickly sound the battle cry if the same antigens show up again. Allergies: -An allergic reaction is similar to an immunity response except it can damage tissues. Tissue rejection can occur because the donator may not have compatible blood type, tissue type, or immunities to the receiver. Anyone getting a transplant might have to be on immunosuppressive drugs to lessen the chance of rejection.
Autoimmunity is when the immune system fails to recognize self cells, forms autoantibodies to attack the antigens present, and destroys the bodys own tissues. Open navigation menu. Close suggestions Search Search. User Settings. Skip carousel. Carousel Previous. Carousel Next. What is Scribd? Uploaded by api Document Information click to expand document information Date uploaded May 09, Did you find this document useful?
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Jump to Page. Search inside document. Chapter 14 Immunity 1 What would happen if extra fluid was allowed to accumulate in cells, tissues, organs, and vessels of the body? Lymphatic Pathways: -This pathway of returning fluid to the circulatory system as well as assisting in the absorption of digested fats from the small intestine is a closed circuit that parallels the circulatory vessels.
Thymus and Spleen: -The thymus is located in between the lungs, anterior to the aorta, and is a bilobed structure surrounded by connective tissue. Autoimmunity is when the immune system fails to recognize self cells, forms autoantibodies to attack the antigens present, and destroys the bodys own tissues Documents Similar To chapter 14 - lymph and immunity.
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The lymphatic system , or lymphoid system , is an organ system in vertebrates that is part of the circulatory system and the immune system. It is made up of a large network of lymph, lymphatic vessels , lymph nodes, lymphatic or lymphoid organs, and lymphoid tissues. Unlike the cardiovascular system, the lymphatic system is not a closed system. The human circulatory system processes an average of 20 litres of blood per day through capillary filtration , which removes plasma from the blood. Roughly 17 litres of the filtered plasma is reabsorbed directly into the blood vessels , while the remaining three litres are left in the interstitial fluid.
Skip to content. Access to the supplemental resources for this session is password-protected and restricted to University of Michigan students. If you are a University of Michigan student enrolled in a histology course at the University of Michigan, please click on the following link and use your Kerberos-password for access to download lecture handouts and the other resources. There is a continuous production and recirculation of lymphocytes in the body. Many of the lymphocytes you see in blood vessels, lymphatic vessels or in tissue have been exposed to antigen and are thus poised to respond to specific antigenic stimuli. The lymph nodes and the spleen facilitate immunological surveillance of the host.
The walls are thin to allow the fluid called lymph to enter the small vessels. They are thinner walled than veins and contain valves at intervals to help the fluid not back up. They are named for where they are in the body. Thoracic duct: larger and longer collecting duct; receives lymph from lower limbs, abdominal region, left arm, left side of the head, thorax and neck; empties into the left subclavian vein. Right lymphatic duct: receives lymph from right side of the head and neck, right arm, and right thorax; empties into the right subclavian vein. Tissue Fluid and Lymph: -Lymph is fluid from all tissues, so it depends on what tissue it originated from how lymph was formed.
Chapter Page 2. Chapter 14 □ (textbook pages –). A. Match the 7. Normal reaction of the immune system to foreign agents is impaired 6. Drug that treats AIDS by blocking an enzyme needed to make copies of HIV.
The lymphatic system is part of the immune system. It also maintains fluid balance and plays a role in absorbing fats and fat-soluble nutrients. The lymphatic or lymph system involves an extensive network of vessels that passes through almost all our tissues to allow for the movement of a fluid called lymph. Lymph circulates through the body in a similar way to blood. There are about lymph nodes in the body.
If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. Please consult the latest official manual style if you have any questions regarding the format accuracy. The immune system provides defense or immunity against infectious agents ranging from viruses to multicellular parasites.
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The senses are olfaction smell , gustation taste , somatosensation sensations associated with the skin and body , audition hearing , equilibrium balance , and vision.Reply
Click on prefixes, combining forms, and suffixes to reveal a list of word parts to memorize for the Lymphatic and Immune Systems.Reply