File Name: scientific names of animals and plants in tamil .zip
Scientists have given each and every recognized species on earth its own scientific names to uniquely identify them to avoid confusion. At the simplest level of scientific classification, each scientific name consists of two parts — a generic or genus name and a specific name or epithet. Together, these two names are referred to as a binomial.
Natural products with medicinal value are gradually gaining importance in clinical research due to their well-known property of no side effects as compared to drugs. Recently the discovery of active components from the plant and their biological function in disease control has led to active interest in the plant across the globe. Our present study in this review encompasses i the genetic diversity of the plant and ii active components isolated from the plant and their biological role in disease targeting.
Botany , also called plant science s , plant biology or phytology , is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist , plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field.
Nowadays, botanists in the strict sense study approximately , species of land plants of which some , species are vascular plants including approximately , species of flowering plants ,  and approximately 20, are bryophytes.
Botany originated in prehistory as herbalism with the efforts of early humans to identify — and later cultivate — edible, medicinal and poisonous plants, making it one of the oldest branches of science. Medieval physic gardens , often attached to monasteries , contained plants of medical importance. They were forerunners of the first botanical gardens attached to universities , founded from the s onwards.
One of the earliest was the Padua botanical garden. These gardens facilitated the academic study of plants. Efforts to catalogue and describe their collections were the beginnings of plant taxonomy , and led in to the binomial system of nomenclature of Carl Linnaeus that remains in use to this day for the naming of all biological species.
In the 19th and 20th centuries, new techniques were developed for the study of plants, including methods of optical microscopy and live cell imaging , electron microscopy , analysis of chromosome number , plant chemistry and the structure and function of enzymes and other proteins.
In the last two decades of the 20th century, botanists exploited the techniques of molecular genetic analysis , including genomics and proteomics and DNA sequences to classify plants more accurately. Modern botany is a broad, multidisciplinary subject with inputs from most other areas of science and technology. Research topics include the study of plant structure , growth and differentiation, reproduction , biochemistry and primary metabolism , chemical products , development , diseases , evolutionary relationships , systematics , and plant taxonomy.
Dominant themes in 21st century plant science are molecular genetics and epigenetics , which study the mechanisms and control of gene expression during differentiation of plant cells and tissues. Botanical research has diverse applications in providing staple foods , materials such as timber , oil , rubber, fibre and drugs, in modern horticulture , agriculture and forestry , plant propagation , breeding and genetic modification , in the synthesis of chemicals and raw materials for construction and energy production, in environmental management , and the maintenance of biodiversity.
There is evidence humans used plants as far back as 10, years ago in the Little Tennessee River Valley, generally as firewood or food. Examples of early botanical works have been found in ancient texts from India dating back to before BCE,   Ancient Egypt ,  in archaic Avestan writings, and in works from China purportedly from before BCE. Modern botany traces its roots back to Ancient Greece specifically to Theophrastus c. Another work from Ancient Greece that made an early impact on botany is De Materia Medica , a five-volume encyclopedia about herbal medicine written in the middle of the first century by Greek physician and pharmacologist Pedanius Dioscorides.
De Materia Medica was widely read for more than 1, years. In the midth century, botanical gardens were founded in a number of Italian universities. The Padua botanical garden in is usually considered to be the first which is still in its original location. These gardens continued the practical value of earlier "physic gardens", often associated with monasteries, in which plants were cultivated for medical use. They supported the growth of botany as an academic subject.
Lectures were given about the plants grown in the gardens and their medical uses demonstrated. Botanical gardens came much later to northern Europe; the first in England was the University of Oxford Botanic Garden in Throughout this period, botany remained firmly subordinate to medicine. German physician Leonhart Fuchs — was one of "the three German fathers of botany", along with theologian Otto Brunfels — and physician Hieronymus Bock — also called Hieronymus Tragus.
Bock created his own system of plant classification. Physician Valerius Cordus — authored a botanically and pharmacologically important herbal Historia Plantarum in and a pharmacopoeia of lasting importance, the Dispensatorium in Naturalist Ulisse Aldrovandi — was considered the father of natural history , which included the study of plants.
In , using an early microscope, Polymath Robert Hooke discovered cells , a term he coined, in cork , and a short time later in living plant tissue. During the 18th century, systems of plant identification were developed comparable to dichotomous keys , where unidentified plants are placed into taxonomic groups e. The choice and sequence of the characters may be artificial in keys designed purely for identification diagnostic keys or more closely related to the natural or phyletic order of the taxa in synoptic keys.
This established a standardised binomial or two-part naming scheme where the first name represented the genus and the second identified the species within the genus. The 24th group, Cryptogamia , included all plants with concealed reproductive parts, mosses, liverworts, ferns, algae and fungi.
Increasing knowledge of plant anatomy , morphology and life cycles led to the realisation that there were more natural affinities between plants than the artificial sexual system of Linnaeus. Adanson , de Jussieu , and Candolle all proposed various alternative natural systems of classification that grouped plants using a wider range of shared characters and were widely followed.
Darwin 's publication of the Origin of Species in and his concept of common descent required modifications to the Candollean system to reflect evolutionary relationships as distinct from mere morphological similarity.
Building upon the gene-chromosome theory of heredity that originated with Gregor Mendel — , August Weismann — proved that inheritance only takes place through gametes. No other cells can pass on inherited characters. Her books Plant Anatomy and Anatomy of Seed Plants have been key plant structural biology texts for more than half a century.
The discipline of plant ecology was pioneered in the late 19th century by botanists such as Eugenius Warming , who produced the hypothesis that plants form communities , and his mentor and successor Christen C. The concept that the composition of plant communities such as temperate broadleaf forest changes by a process of ecological succession was developed by Henry Chandler Cowles , Arthur Tansley and Frederic Clements. Clements is credited with the idea of climax vegetation as the most complex vegetation that an environment can support and Tansley introduced the concept of ecosystems to biology.
Particularly since the mids there have been advances in understanding of the physics of plant physiological processes such as transpiration the transport of water within plant tissues , the temperature dependence of rates of water evaporation from the leaf surface and the molecular diffusion of water vapour and carbon dioxide through stomatal apertures.
These developments, coupled with new methods for measuring the size of stomatal apertures, and the rate of photosynthesis have enabled precise description of the rates of gas exchange between plants and the atmosphere. Thimann in enabled regulation of plant growth by externally applied chemicals.
Frederick Campion Steward pioneered techniques of micropropagation and plant tissue culture controlled by plant hormones. With the rise of the related molecular-scale biological approaches of molecular biology , genomics , proteomics and metabolomics , the relationship between the plant genome and most aspects of the biochemistry, physiology, morphology and behaviour of plants can be subjected to detailed experimental analysis.
These technologies enable the biotechnological use of whole plants or plant cell cultures grown in bioreactors to synthesise pesticides , antibiotics or other pharmaceuticals , as well as the practical application of genetically modified crops designed for traits such as improved yield. Modern morphology recognises a continuum between the major morphological categories of root, stem caulome , leaf phyllome and trichome. Molecular analysis of DNA sequences from most families of flowering plants enabled the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group to publish in a phylogeny of flowering plants, answering many of the questions about relationships among angiosperm families and species.
The study of plants is vital because they underpin almost all animal life on Earth by generating a large proportion of the oxygen and food that provide humans and other organisms with aerobic respiration with the chemical energy they need to exist. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria are the major groups of organisms that carry out photosynthesis , a process that uses the energy of sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide  into sugars that can be used both as a source of chemical energy and of organic molecules that are used in the structural components of cells.
In addition, they are influential in the global carbon and water cycles and plant roots bind and stabilise soils, preventing soil erosion. Historically, all living things were classified as either animals or plants  and botany covered the study of all organisms not considered animals. At each of these levels, a botanist may be concerned with the classification taxonomy , phylogeny and evolution , structure anatomy and morphology , or function physiology of plant life. The strictest definition of "plant" includes only the "land plants" or embryophytes , which include seed plants gymnosperms, including the pines , and flowering plants and the free-sporing cryptogams including ferns , clubmosses , liverworts , hornworts and mosses.
Embryophytes are multicellular eukaryotes descended from an ancestor that obtained its energy from sunlight by photosynthesis. They have life cycles with alternating haploid and diploid phases.
The sexual haploid phase of embryophytes, known as the gametophyte , nurtures the developing diploid embryo sporophyte within its tissues for at least part of its life,  even in the seed plants, where the gametophyte itself is nurtured by its parent sporophyte. However, attention is still given to these groups by botanists, and fungi including lichens and photosynthetic protists are usually covered in introductory botany courses.
Palaeobotanists study ancient plants in the fossil record to provide information about the evolutionary history of plants. Cyanobacteria , the first oxygen-releasing photosynthetic organisms on Earth, are thought to have given rise to the ancestor of plants by entering into an endosymbiotic relationship with an early eukaryote, ultimately becoming the chloroplasts in plant cells. The new photosynthetic plants along with their algal relatives accelerated the rise in atmospheric oxygen started by the cyanobacteria , changing the ancient oxygen-free, reducing , atmosphere to one in which free oxygen has been abundant for more than 2 billion years.
Among the important botanical questions of the 21st century are the role of plants as primary producers in the global cycling of life's basic ingredients: energy, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and water, and ways that our plant stewardship can help address the global environmental issues of resource management , conservation , human food security , biologically invasive organisms , carbon sequestration , climate change , and sustainability.
Virtually all staple foods come either directly from primary production by plants, or indirectly from animals that eat them. This is what ecologists call the first trophic level. Botanists study how plants produce food and how to increase yields, for example through plant breeding , making their work important to humanity's ability to feed the world and provide food security for future generations.
When applied to the investigation of historical plant—people relationships ethnobotany may be referred to as archaeobotany or palaeoethnobotany. Plant biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes used by plants. Some of these processes are used in their primary metabolism like the photosynthetic Calvin cycle and crassulacean acid metabolism.
Plants and various other groups of photosynthetic eukaryotes collectively known as " algae " have unique organelles known as chloroplasts. Chloroplasts are thought to be descended from cyanobacteria that formed endosymbiotic relationships with ancient plant and algal ancestors. Chloroplasts and cyanobacteria contain the blue-green pigment chlorophyll a. The energy in the red and blue light that these pigments absorb is used by chloroplasts to make energy-rich carbon compounds from carbon dioxide and water by oxygenic photosynthesis , a process that generates molecular oxygen O 2 as a by-product.
The light energy captured by chlorophyll a is initially in the form of electrons and later a proton gradient that's used to make molecules of ATP and NADPH which temporarily store and transport energy. Their energy is used in the light-independent reactions of the Calvin cycle by the enzyme rubisco to produce molecules of the 3-carbon sugar glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate G3P.
Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate is the first product of photosynthesis and the raw material from which glucose and almost all other organic molecules of biological origin are synthesised. Some of the glucose is converted to starch which is stored in the chloroplast. Some of the glucose is converted to sucrose common table sugar for export to the rest of the plant. Unlike in animals which lack chloroplasts , plants and their eukaryote relatives have delegated many biochemical roles to their chloroplasts , including synthesising all their fatty acids ,   and most amino acids.
Plants synthesise a number of unique polymers like the polysaccharide molecules cellulose , pectin and xyloglucan  from which the land plant cell wall is constructed. Lignin is also used in other cell types like sclerenchyma fibres that provide structural support for a plant and is a major constituent of wood. Sporopollenin is a chemically resistant polymer found in the outer cell walls of spores and pollen of land plants responsible for the survival of early land plant spores and the pollen of seed plants in the fossil record.
It is widely regarded as a marker for the start of land plant evolution during the Ordovician period. Many monocots like maize and the pineapple and some dicots like the Asteraceae have since independently evolved  pathways like Crassulacean acid metabolism and the C 4 carbon fixation pathway for photosynthesis which avoid the losses resulting from photorespiration in the more common C 3 carbon fixation pathway.
These biochemical strategies are unique to land plants. Phytochemistry is a branch of plant biochemistry primarily concerned with the chemical substances produced by plants during secondary metabolism.
Others, such as the essential oils peppermint oil and lemon oil are useful for their aroma, as flavourings and spices e. Many medicinal and recreational drugs , such as tetrahydrocannabinol active ingredient in cannabis , caffeine , morphine and nicotine come directly from plants.
Others are simple derivatives of botanical natural products. For example, the pain killer aspirin is the acetyl ester of salicylic acid , originally isolated from the bark of willow trees,  and a wide range of opiate painkillers like heroin are obtained by chemical modification of morphine obtained from the opium poppy. Most alcoholic beverages come from fermentation of carbohydrate -rich plant products such as barley beer , rice sake and grapes wine. Plants can synthesise useful coloured dyes and pigments such as the anthocyanins responsible for the red colour of red wine , yellow weld and blue woad used together to produce Lincoln green , indoxyl , source of the blue dye indigo traditionally used to dye denim and the artist's pigments gamboge and rose madder.
Sugar, starch , cotton, linen , hemp , some types of rope , wood and particle boards , papyrus and paper, vegetable oils , wax , and natural rubber are examples of commercially important materials made from plant tissues or their secondary products.
Charcoal , a pure form of carbon made by pyrolysis of wood, has a long history as a metal- smelting fuel, as a filter material and adsorbent and as an artist's material and is one of the three ingredients of gunpowder.
Cellulose , the world's most abundant organic polymer,  can be converted into energy, fuels, materials and chemical feedstock.
Grevillea victoriae. At the simplest level of scientific classification, each plant has a name made up of two parts, a generic or genus name and a specific name or epithet. Together, these two names are referred to as a binomial. It indicates a grouping of organisms that all share a suite of similar characters. Ideally these should all have evolved from one common ancestor. The specific name, allows us to distinguish between different organisms within a genus. Binomial names are always written with the generic name first , starting with a capital letter, e.
In taxonomy , binomial nomenclature "two-term naming system" , also called binomi n al nomenclature "two-name naming system" or binary nomenclature , is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms , although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a binomial name which may be shortened to just "binomial" , a binomen , binominal name or a scientific name ; more informally it is also called a Latin name. The first part of the name — the generic name — identifies the genus to which the species belongs, while the second part — the specific name or specific epithet — identifies the species within the genus. For example, modern humans belong to the genus Homo and within this genus to the species Homo sapiens.
An endangered species is a native species that faces a significant risk of extinction in the near future throughout all or a significant portion of its range. Such species may be declining in number due to threats such as habitat destruction, climate change, or pressure from invasive species. The term endangered species can be used either in a general or legal context. When used in a general sense, the term describes a species that faces a risk of extinction but does not necessarily indicate that the species is protected under any law.
Family: Liliaceae. Researches on herbal medicine often require a knowledge of the names of medicinal plants in different languages since many of the herbal plants are available only in specific regions and climates. The following is a list of common names of 50 popular plants.
Scientists have given each and every recognized species on earth its own Scientific Names to uniquely identify them to avoid confusion. At the simplest level of scientific classification, each Scientific Name consists of two parts — a generic or genus name and a specific name or epithet.
По голосу Стратмора, мягкому и спокойному, никто никогда не догадался бы, что мир, в котором он жил, рушится у него на глазах. Он отступил от двери и отошел чуть в сторону, пропуская Чатрукьяна в святая святых Третьего узла. Тот в нерешительности застыл в дверях, как хорошо обученная служебная собака, знающая, что ей запрещено переступать порог. По изумлению на лице Чатрукьяна было видно, что он никогда прежде не бывал в этой комнате. Какова бы ни была причина его волнения, когда он колотил в стеклянную стену Третьего узла, она моментально улетучилась. Он разглядывал роскошную внутреннюю отделку, выстроившиеся в ряд компьютеры, диваны, книжные полки, залитые мягким светом. Увидав королеву шифровалки Сьюзан Флетчер, Чатрукьян моментально отвел .
- Можешь выражаться яснее. Две минуты спустя Джабба мчался вниз к главному банку данных. ГЛАВА 85 Грег Хейл, распластавшись, лежал на полу помещения Третьего узла. Стратмор и Сьюзан отволокли его туда через шифровалку и связали ему руки и ноги толстым кабелем от одного из лазерных принтеров. Сьюзан до сих пор была ошеломлена ловкими действиями коммандера.
Его смерть бросает на Цифровую крепость тень подозрения. Я хотел внести исправления тихо и спокойно.