causes and effects of natural disasters pdf

Causes and effects of natural disasters pdf

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Complex effects of natural disasters on protected areas through altering telecouplings

PTSD: National Center for PTSD

PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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Complex effects of natural disasters on protected areas through altering telecouplings

Humanitarian emergencies, including natural and human-made disasters, conflicts and complex emergencies, constitute what has traditionally been considered the main threat to health security worldwide. Each year millions of people are affected by natural and man-made disasters around the world. Tornados, hurricanes, heavy rains and earthquakes resulted in tens of thousands of deaths and many more affected. Indeed, disasters would not be disastrous if it were not for their effect on the human population. Links between the natural environment and human health have been suggested for centuries. Disasters throughout history have had significant impact on the numbers, health status and life style of populations. It induce: Deaths, Severe injuries, requiring extensive treatments, Increased risk of communicable diseases, Damage to the health facilities, Damage to the water systems, Food shortage, Population movements.

As globalization continues, protected areas have been increasingly connected with the outside world through telecouplings environmental and socioeconomic interaction over distances such as nature-based tourism, trade of agricultural products, and rural-urban labor migration Liu et al. This trend has profoundly changed human-nature interactions in protected areas and generated complex socioeconomic and ecological effects Kramer et al. For example, nature-based tourism has been widely promoted in many protected areas as an important mechanism to alleviate poverty and discourage local households from their traditional livelihood activities e. The number and scale of natural disasters have been projected to increase in the future because of global environmental change and the increase of human disturbances in regions at risk of natural disasters Dudley and Stolton , Field Therefore, it is important to understand how natural disasters might change telecouplings that constitute critical linkages between protected areas and distant places e.

Some well-known examples of these disasters are floods, earthquakes, tsunami, wildfires, droughts, thunderstorms, and hurricanes, etc. Although we cannot control these natural events we can plan and prepare to reduce the damage they cause. Scientists do claim to have found ways to avoid these disasters but most of the time they fail to predict. Almost every year many people lose their lives due to naturally occurring disasters like earthquakes and floods; some of the most occurring phenomena. Tsunami, earthquakes, and floods have affected many parts of Asia and America in and Indian Ocean earthquake in , Pakistan earthquake in , Hurricane Katrina in , and Haiti earthquake in are some of the horrible examples from the past few years that took many lives. One of the most occurring natural events is floods.

PTSD: National Center for PTSD

A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth ; examples include floods , hurricanes , tornadoes , volcanic eruptions , earthquakes , tsunamis , storms , and other geologic processes. A natural disaster can cause loss of life or damage property, [1] and typically leaves some economic damage in its wake, the severity of which depends on the affected population's resilience and on the infrastructure available. In modern times, the divide between natural, man-made and man-accelerated is quite difficult to draw [3] [4] [5] with human choices like architecture, [6] fire, [7] [8] resource management [8] [9] or even climate change [10] potentially playing a role. An adverse event will not rise to the level of a disaster if it occurs in an area without vulnerable population. A landslide is described as an outward and downward slope movement of an abundance of slope-forming materials including rock, soil, artificial materials, or a combination of these. During World War I , an estimated 40, to 80, soldiers died as a result of avalanches during the mountain campaign in the Alps at the Austrian-Italian front.

В Третьем узле виднелось голубоватое сияние: терминалы по-прежнему работали; они обеспечивали функционирование ТРАНСТЕКСТА, поэтому на них поступало аварийное питание. Сьюзан просунула в щель ногу в туфле Феррагамо и усилила нажим. Дверь подалась. Стратмор сменил положение. Вцепившись в левую створку, он тянул ее на себя, Сьюзан толкала правую створку в противоположном направлении. Через некоторое время им с огромным трудом удалось расширить щель до одного фута.

Тут все совпадает. Он решил, что мы добрались до него и, вероятно, отравили - ядом, вызывающим остановку сердца. Он понимал, что мы могли решиться на это только в одном случае - если нашли Северную Дакоту. По спине Сьюзан пробежал холодок. - Конечно, - чуть слышно сказала .


– Those caused by man. Natural disasters. Natural disasters are caused by natural forces, such as earthquakes, volcanic erup- tions.


PTSD: National Center for PTSD

Когда я спрашиваю, почему многомиллиардное здание погрузилось во тьму, я рассчитываю на профессиональный ответ. - Да, мэм. - Я хочу услышать только да или .

Компьютер однократно пискнул. На экране высветилось: СЛЕДОПЫТ ОТПРАВЛЕН Теперь надо ждать. Сьюзан вздохнула.

Она никак не могла свыкнуться с этой мыслью. - Цифровая крепость, - сказал Стратмор.  - Так назвал ее Танкадо. Это новейшее оружие, направленное против разведслужб. Если эта программа попадет на рынок, любой третьеклассник, имеющий модем, получит возможность отправлять зашифрованные сообщения, которые АНБ не сможет прочесть.

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Он обладал почти сверхъестественной способностью преодолевать моральные затруднения, с которыми нередко бывают связаны сложные решения агентства, и действовать без угрызений совести в интересах всеобщего блага. Ни у кого не вызывало сомнений, что Стратмор любит свою страну. Он был известен среди сотрудников, он пользовался репутацией патриота и идеалиста… честного человека в мире, сотканном из лжи. За годы, прошедшие после появления в АНБ Сьюзан, Стратмор поднялся с поста начальника Отдела развития криптографии до второй по важности позиции во всем агентстве. Теперь только один человек в АНБ был по должности выше коммандера Стратмора - директор Лиланд Фонтейн, мифический правитель Дворца головоломок, которого никто никогда не видел, лишь изредка слышал, но перед которым все дрожали от страха.

 Н-но… - Сьюзан запнулась, но тут же продолжила: - Я была уверена, что он блефует. Он действительно это сделал. - Да. Создатель последнего шифра, который никто никогда не взломает. Сьюзан долго молчала.

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2 comments

  • Einar Q. 08.05.2021 at 18:23

    Every year, millions of people are affected by both human-caused and natural disasters.

    Reply
  • Pierre L. 15.05.2021 at 04:52

    Natural disasters are extreme and sudden events caused by environmental factors that injure people and damage property.

    Reply

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