covariance and correlation examples pdf

Covariance and correlation examples pdf

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5.3.1 Covariance and Correlation


Before you order, simply sign up for a free user account and in seconds you'll be experiencing the best in CFA exam preparation. Quantitative Methods 1 Reading 8. Probability Concepts Subject 7. Covariance and Correlation. Seeing is believing!

Recall, we have looked at the joint p. Intuitively, two random variables, X and Y, are independent if knowing the value of one of them does not change the probabilities for the other one. If X and Y are two non-independent dependent variables, we would want to establish how one varies with respect to the other. If X increases, for example, does Y also tend to increase or decrease? And if so, how strong is the dependence between the two?

Adapted from this comic from xkcd. We are currently in the process of editing Probability! If you see any typos, potential edits or changes in this Chapter, please note them here. We continue our foray into Joint Distributions with topics central to Statistics: Covariance and Correlation. These are among the most applicable of the concepts in this book; Correlation is so popular that you have likely come across it in a wide variety of disciplines. We know that variance measures the spread of a random variable, so Covariance measures how two random random variables vary together. Unlike Variance, which is non-negative, Covariance can be negative or positive or zero, of course.

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We'll jump right in with a formal definition of the covariance. Two questions you might have right now: 1 What does the covariance mean? That is, what does it tell us? We'll be answering the first question in the pages that follow. Well, sort of! In reality, we'll use the covariance as a stepping stone to yet another statistical measure known as the correlation coefficient.

Two traits might have a relationship. The relationship can also be low see figure below, the low relationship between live weight and sale price in cattle. This might be caused e. In animal breeding we frequently use the covariance, correlation or regression as a statistical description of such relationships between traits. Where E stands for the expectation, which can be calculated as the summation divided by the number of observations.

Be able to compute the covariance and correlation of two random variables. 2 Covariance Continuous case: If X and Y have joint pdf f(x, y). over range Discussion: This example shows that Cov(X, Y) = 0 does not imply that X and Y are.

5.3.1 Covariance and Correlation

In probability theory and statistics , the mathematical concepts of covariance and correlation are very similar. Notably, correlation is dimensionless while covariance is in units obtained by multiplying the units of the two variables. If Y always takes on the same values as X , we have the covariance of a variable with itself i.

It is helpful instead to have a dimensionless measure of dependency, such as the correlation coefficient does. So now the natural question is "what does that tell us? Well, we'll be exploring the answer to that question in depth on the page titled More on Understanding Rho, but for now let the following interpretation suffice.

Covariance and correlation

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