File Name: geared and ungeared beta matlab.zip
For complaints, use another form. Study lib. Upload document Create flashcards. Flashcards Collections. Documents Last activity. Add to Add to collection s Add to saved. All rights reserved. It is necessary to develop new ways to distribute the energy using economically feasible solutions.
Inside each TEU, four cylinders are installed that can store compressed natural gas at bar. Two types of cylinders are tested: cylinders made of steel and cylinders made of carbon fiber. Carbon fiber cylinders were chosen because they are lighter. In addition, two types of compressors are used: centrifugal and reciprocating compressors. Centrifugal compressors are used to increase the initial pressure from 10 bar to 50 bar.
Reciprocating compressors are used to increase the pressure from 50 bar to bar. A model is developed using thermodynamics and MATLAB, in order to determine the total power required for a compressor to fill the entire vessel in one or more days. Furthermore, by using valuation metrics, a model is created to find the value of the project and to generate sensitivity analyses.
It is concluded that leasing the ships is more profitable than buying them. Thesis Supervisor: Paul D. Sclavounos Title: Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture 2 Dedication This thesis is dedicated to my parents, Vasilis and Maria, whose support, guidance and constant love have sustained me throughout my life and have provided me the opportunity to pursue my dreams.
John Coustas and Mr. In addition, I would like to thank all the professors and students at MIT. At last, to my parents, thanks for supporting me with your love and understanding.
Georgios V. Econom ic Valuation Appendix A - Torsion of our Cylinders Introduction 1. That share is expected to rise especially in North America and Europe. Natural gas is a gaseous-phase fossil fuel and is lighter than air. It is used for residential purposes such as space heating, water heating and cooking.
In the last decade, gas is also used to generate electricity. It is cleaner than conventional fossil fuels such as coal solid substance and oil liquid substance. Gas is also more efficient and has lower levels of dangerous byproducts that are released into the atmosphere Wang and Economides There are many large deposits of natural gas around the world.
The World Top 10 This growth is shown in Figure 3. This is due to the shutdown of Nuclear reactors in Japan after the Fukosima accident and the increased Chinese demand for the Russian natural gas. Hence, the transportation of it over long distances is a major issue for the majority of governments and the energy sector. Two well established modes of transportation are used to carry natural gas over long distances from the sources to the consumers: pipelines and liquefied natural gas LNG ships.
Many countries construct LNG terminals for re-gasification in order to be able to get this fossil fuel directly from the LNG ships. Some LNG ships have already installed small re-gasification stations on them, in order to be able to transport greater gas volume from the port. These stations make LNG ships more competitive against the pipelines. The following figure clearly depicts LNG ships domination in the sea transport market of natural gas Wang and Economides Underwater pipelines are also an option, but are very expensive.
Pipelines are the common and efficient ways to transport natural gas on land. Of course, pipelines have political, technical and economical obstacles. High capital investment is needed for large-diameter pipelines and significant proven reserves for the next years. Larger pipelines mean that more compressor stations are necessary for the operation of the pipelines.
Compressor stations require fuel and specialized workers to run. Pipeline transportation is less complex than the LNG process. In the last decade, the development of the underwater pipelines and offshore pipeline technology make pipelines a viable way of transportation.
Pipeline usage reduces the unit costs of gas transportation thus making it more competitive to LNG vessels usage Wagner and Wagensveld Figure 5: Alaskan Pipeline 11 1. Generally, beyond 3, kilometers is too great and expensive of a distance for pipelines to cover Wand and Economides The environmental concerns for oil transportation pipelines have frequently been more widely debated than for liquefied natural gas pipeline transportation.
Pipeline projects such as the Baku-Tblisi Ceyhan, Chad-Cameroon, Camisea and the Yadana have become important landmarks for ecological activism. On the other hand, if the pipeline infrastructure can be moved underground then the environmental impacts can be reduced.
The advantage of LNG ships over pipelines and other modes of transportation for natural gas is clearly depicted by the following figure.
Ships, trucks and barges can transport it. It has been used to fuel buses, cars and other vehicles around the world. There are several maritime companies that use CNG vessels to transport compressed natural gas throughout the seas.
The first ship was constructed in the 's for the transportation of CNG. This ship was capable of carrying compressed natural gas. Of course, this ship was uneconomical due to the low selling price of natural gas. This high transportation cost and low gas prices meant low returns for the investors Wang and Economides Thus they can pick up and transport natural gas from any port. At an ambient temperature, natural gas is compressed to higher pressures bar.
A common CNG ship has a containment system of cylindrical, vertical or horizontal pipes to store the compressed natural gas. The pipes are made of steel in order to sustain the high temperature of natural gas intake. In the last decade, many investors and shipping companies have shown interest in CNG projects.
It has a model that stores compressed natural gas in coils of pipe wound into cylindrical containers called coselles. Coselles have a diameter of 17 meters and 4 meters in height. Every coselle weighs around tons and has a capacity of 3 million MMscf of compressed natural gas. They can be stacked in the holds and on the deck. This type of CNG vessel combines safe and efficient loading and unloading facilities with the gas compressed at an onshore terminal.
Cost savings are achieved because these types of ships use their own natural gas, as a fuel thus the ship owner does not need to purchase heavy fuel oil, which is expensive. This system consists of pipes enclosed in cylindrical containers. Det Norske Veritas the Norwegian classification society approved this vessel.
In this model, the natural gas is stored on-board at bar at ambient temperature in vertical cylinders. The capacity of these ships varies from 2 million cubic meters to 30 million cubic meters. Their advantage is that they use natural gas as fuel so they have low cost. Their disadvantage is that the unloading of natural gas could be far away from shore and this increases the delivery cost.
The technology behind the Knutsen's ship is simple. It is a combination of a crude oil tanker and a container vessel. The ship's pressurized natural gas system is based on pipeline construction principles. Fiber pressure vessels are considered safe and trustworthy and have various applications in different industries such as aerospace, offshore shipping and public transportation. Using fiber pressure vessels eliminates all the disadvantages of using conventional steel pressure vessels.
The cassette system carries fiber pressure bottles vertically and manifolds are connected on the top and bottom of each cassette. In order to reduce their instability from vibrations and hydrodynamic movements, the cassette frames are made of steel. In addition, manifolds and pipes are manufactured by duplex stainless steel in order to be corrosion resistant Trans Ocean Gas.
July, This system includes compressed natural gas bottles made from large-diameter steel pipe sections. Reducing the vessel's weight reduces wall thickness due to the operating pressure of bar and in that way the volume of natural gas is increased.
The vessel's draft was designed to guarantee that the ship could be constructed and the cargo containment system could be fitted in dry dock. In addition, the vessel can be dry docked in many ports worldwide for servicing and maintenance. It is an essential cargo-moving method established in the last century. Sealed boxes were used until the s. Afterwards, containerization became a vital factor in maritime industry.
Ships were constructed for carrying containers.
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Energy Efficient Engine program advanced turbofan nacelle definition study. The study results established the design feasibility of advanced technology, slim line nacelles applicable to advanced technology, high bypass ratio turbofan engines. The reduced weight, drag, and cost of the advanced technology nacelle installations relative to current technology nacelles offer a mission fuel burn savings ranging from 3.
Gear fatigue crack prognosis using embedded model , gear dynamic model and fracture mechanics.
Дело в людях. Они потеряли веру. Они стали параноиками. Они внезапно стали видеть врага в. И мы, те, кто близко к сердцу принимает интересы страны, оказались вынужденными бороться за наше право служить своей стране. Мы больше не миротворцы.
- Первым делом нам нужно убедиться, что Стратмор действительно обошел систему Сквозь строй. А потом мы позвоним директору. - Замечательно.
Почему? - удивилась Сьюзан.
Уже направляясь к двери, Сьюзан внимательно посмотрела на ТРАНСТЕКСТ. Она все еще не могла свыкнуться с мыслью о шифре, не поддающемся взлому. И взмолилась о том, чтобы они сумели вовремя найти Северную Дакоту. - Поторопись, - крикнул ей вдогонку Стратмор, - и ты еще успеешь к ночи попасть в Смоки-Маунтинс. От неожиданности Сьюзан застыла на месте. Она была уверена, что никогда не говорила с шефом о поездке. Она повернулась.
Просунув раскаленный паяльник сквозь проволочный лабиринт у себя над головой, он действовал с величайшей осмотрительностью: опалить защитную оболочку провода значило вывести аппарат из строя. Еще несколько сантиметров, подумал Джабба.
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