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C is a computer programming language that was developed by Dennis Ritchie and released in the year The original purpose of this language was to develop a system programming language that can be used to write an operating system. This general-purpose language is structured and machine-independent, which makes its applications simple and flexible. So, C is one of the basic and essential computing languages that developers need to know. Currently, C programming is used in numerous key applications such as embedded systems, desktop applications, graphic user interface and compilers.
There are actually two ways you can do this. Likewise, the statement "x --" means to decrement the value of x by 1. When using Call by Value, you are sending the value of a variable as parameter to a function, whereas Call by Reference sends the address of the variable. Also, under Call by Value, the value in the parameter is not affected by whatever operation that takes place, while in the case of Call by Reference, values can be affected by the process within the function.
How does this aid in debugging? The idea is that if the code is in fact correct, you simply remove the comment symbols and continue on. It also saves you time and effort on having to retype the codes if you have deleted it in the first place. A stack is one form of a data structure. At any particular instance, only the top of the stack is accessible, which means that in order to retrieve data that is stored inside the stack, those on the upper part should be extracted first.
When writing programs that will store and retrieve data in a file, it is possible to designate that file into different forms. A sequential access file is such that data are saved in sequential order: one data is placed into the file after another. To access a particular data within the sequential access file, data has to be read one data at a time, until the right one is reached.
This refers to the process wherein a variable is assigned an initial value before it is used in the program. Without initialization, a variable would have an unknown value, which can lead to unpredictable outputs when used in computations or other operations. Spaghetti programming refers to codes that tend to get tangled and overlapped throughout the program. This unstructured approach to coding is usually attributed to lack of experience on the part of the programmer. Spaghetti programing makes a program complex and analyzing the codes difficult, and so must be avoided as much as possible.
It is made up of the commands and other English-like keywords that are supposed to instruct the computer what to do. However, computers would not be able to understand source codes. Therefore, source codes are compiled using a compiler. The resulting outputs are object codes, which are in a format that can be understood by the computer processor. In C programming, source codes are saved with the file extension.
C, while object codes are saved with the file extension. OBJ 10 In C programming, how do you insert quote characters ' and " into the output screen? This is a common problem for beginners because quotes are normally part of a printf statement.
It is referred to as a terminating null character, and is used primarily to show the end of a string value. It is used to assign a value to a given variable. The modulus operator outputs the remainder of a division. A nested loop is a loop that runs within another loop. Put it in another sense, you have an inner loop that is inside an outer loop. In this scenario, the inner loop is performed a number of times as specified by the outer loop.
For each turn on the outer loop, the inner loop is first performed. Instead, the operator! Compilers and interpreters often deal with how program codes are executed. Interpreters execute program codes one line at a time, while compilers take the program as a whole and convert it into object code, before executing it.
The key difference here is that in the case of interpreters, a program may encounter syntax errors in the middle of execution, and will stop from there. On the other hand, compilers check the syntax of the entire program and will only proceed to execution when no syntax errors are found.
The char keyword can only hold 1 character value at a time. By creating an array of characters, you can store string values in it. Example: "char MyName; " declares a string variable named MyName that can hold a maximum of 50 characters. While curly brackets are mainly used to group several lines of codes, it will still work without error if you used it for a single line. Some programmers prefer this method as a way of organizing codes to make it look clearer, especially in conditional statements.
Header files are also known as library files. They contain two essential things: the definitions and prototypes of functions being used in a program. Simply put, commands that you use in C programming are actually functions that are defined from within each header files. Each header file contains a set of functions.
For example: stdio. Syntax errors are associated with mistakes in the use of a programming language. It maybe a command that was misspelled or a command that must was entered in lowercase mode but was instead entered with an upper case character.
A misplaced symbol, or lack of symbol, somewhere within a line of code can also lead to syntax error. Variables and constants may at first look similar in a sense that both are identifiers made up of one character or more characters letters, numbers and a few allowable symbols.
Both will also hold a particular value. Values held by a variable can be altered throughout the program, and can be used in most operations and computations. Constants are given values at one time only, placed at the beginning of a program. This value is not altered in the program.
For example, you can assigned a constant named PI and give it a value 3. You can then use it as PI in the program, instead of having to write 3. Arrays contain a number of elements, depending on the size you gave it during variable declaration. Each element is assigned a number from 0 to number of elements To assign or retrieve the value of a particular element, refer to the element number. For example: if you have a declaration that says "intscores;", then you have 5 accessible elements, namely: scores, scores, scores, scores and scores.
To store , you can use "long int" instead. You can also use "unsigned int", assuming you don't intend to store negative values.
Yes, it's perfectly valid to combine operators, especially if the need arises. Since each header file contains different function definitions and prototype, you would be using only those header files that would contain the functions you will need.
Declaring all header files in every program would only increase the overall file size and load of the program, and is not considered a good programming style. When declaring functions, you will decide whether that function would be returning a value or not.
If that function will not return a value, such as when the purpose of a function is to display some outputs on the screen, then "void" is to be placed at the leftmost part of the function header.
When a return value is expected after the function execution, the data type of the return value is placed instead of "void". Compound statements are made up of two or more program statements that are executed together. Compound statements can also be executed within a loop. Before a program can be written, an algorithm has to be created first. An algorithm provides a step by step procedure on how a solution can be derived.
It also acts as a blueprint on how a program will start and end, including what process and computations are involved. When storing multiple related data, it is a good idea to use arrays. This is because arrays are named using only 1 word followed by an element number. For example: to store the 10 test results of 1 student, one can use 10 different variable names grade1, grade2, grade With arrays, only 1 name is used, the rest are accessible through the index name grade, grade, grade This is a common mistake for programmers, often leading to logical errors.
Random numbers are generated in C using the rand command. The most probable reason behind this error is that the header file for that function was not indicated at the top of the program. Header files contain the definition and prototype for functions and commands used in a C program.
Comments are a great way to put some remarks or description in a program. It can serves as a reminder on what the program is all about, or a description on why a certain code or function was placed there in the first place. Comments can be a single line, or can even span several lines. It can be placed anywhere in the program.
Debugging is the process of identifying errors within a program. During program compilation, errors that are found will stop the program from executing completely.
At this state, the programmer would look into the possible portions where the error occurred. Debugging ensures the removal of errors, and plays an important role in ensuring that the expected program output is met. When using this operator, all conditions specified must be TRUE before the next action can be performed.
If you have 10 conditions and all but 1 fails to evaluate as TRUE, the entire condition statement is already evaluated as FALSE 37 In C programming, what command or code can be used to determine if a number of odd or even? There is no single command or function in C that can check if a number is odd or even. However, this can be accomplished by dividing that number by 2, then checking the remainder.
If the remainder is 0, then that number is even, otherwise, it is odd. This format is used for two things: to set the number of spaces allotted for the output number and to set the number of decimal places.
The number before the decimal point is for the allotted space, in this case it would allot 10 spaces for the output number. If the number of space occupied by the output number is less than 10, addition space characters will be inserted before the actual output number. The number after the decimal point sets the number of decimal places, in this case, it's 2 decimal spaces.
What is a pointer? A pointer is a special variable, which stores the memory address. Ampersand in front of a variable gets its address and asterisk in front of a pointer gets its value. What is null pointer? Null pointer is a pointer which cannot point to anywhere in the program, but uninitialised pointer can point to anywhere in the users program.
C Interview Questions and Answers. What is C language? The C programming language is a standardized programming language developed in the early s.
A void pointer is a pointer that can be used to point to any data of any arbitrary type. A void pointer can be dereferenced only after explicit casting. For example:. What is the difference between include " The difference lies in where the preprocessor looks for the file to be included.
Dear readers, these C Programming Interview Questions have been designed specially to get you acquainted with the nature of questions you may encounter during your interview for the subject of C Programming. It de-refers twice to point to the data held by the designated pointer variable. By default every local variable of the function is automatic auto. Break can appear only with in the looping control and switch statement.
C is a mid-level and procedural programming language. The Procedural programming language is also known as the structured programming language is a technique in which large programs are broken down into smaller modules, and each module uses structured code. This technique minimizes error and misinterpretation. More details. C is known as a mother language because most of the compilers and JVMs are written in C language. It introduces new core concepts like arrays, functions, file handling which are used in these languages. C is called a mid-level programming language because it binds the low level and high -level programming language.
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C is the general and basic programming language that will create a base for other programming languages.Reply
4) What is the equivalent code of the following statement in WHILE LOOP format? for (a=1; a<=; a++) printf ("%d\n", a * a);. Answer.Reply
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C questions and answers.Reply
Important C interview questions with answers. What is a pointer? What is null pointer? Define function pointer? What is volatile variable? Difference between global and static variable? What are the files automatically opened when C file is executed? Compare between array and pointer. Define function prototype?Reply