File Name: borders fences and walls state of insecurity .zip
Instead, it adopted the solution of expelling and displacing native Arab Palestinians. This has translated into a state with perpetual security concerns, a lasting occupation, and the annexation of more Palestinian lands.
It begins by identifying three categories of barriers based on their geographical location: separation barriers in the occupied Palestinian territories barriers separating Israelis from Palestinians and barriers separating Palestinians from each other , barriers as de facto borders between Israel and Arab countries and Israeli military barriers in other occupied Arab territories e. Barriers that separate Palestinians from each other — mainly the West Bank wall — are the most painful not only because they are seen as major Israeli land-grabs but also because they affect vital aspects of Palestinian lives, especially for those who live in areas adjacent to the barriers.
In March , the Israeli government decided to establish checkpoints along the de facto borders of the West Bank, similar to the Erez checkpoint that controls the movement of people in and out of the Gaza Strip. In June , the Israeli government began building the separation wall. Alatout has shown how each period of occupation was guided by a distinct government own regime: the — period, marked by its initial occupation and subsequent establishment of intensive control over territory and population; the — period, when Israeli authorities adopted a new policy of cantonization through intensive use of roadblocks, checkpoints and bypass roads; and the current phase, which started in , when the construction of the separation wall began.
For example, elements of the two earlier phases — such as occupation, control and cantonization — form an integral part of the latest phase of the Israeli separation policy. While the construction of the separation wall in the West Bank obviously reflected a new phase of the Israeli policy towards the oPt, it, in addition to the annexation of some parts of West Bank territory to Israel, this new policy resulted in a unilateral separation of Israel from other Palestinian occupied lands.
The total length of the separation wall extends approximately kilometers, more than twice the length of the kilometer-long Green Line Armistice Line , 13 since it zigzags into the West Bank up to 22 kilometers at points to ensure settlements fall on its western edge. It is expected that, when the separation wall is finished as planned, approximately 65, Palestinians will require permits to cross the wall into the West Bank where they legally reside, and some , Palestinians living in these areas will be trapped in closed military areas between the wall and the Green Line or in enclaves encircled by the wall.
From this point, the Arab-Israeli conflict entered a new phase, characterized by the escalation of bombing attacks inside Israel. In and , Palestinian armed groups 22 carried out 87 bombings against Israeli targets, causing fatalities. Even if the decision to build the separation wall in was made in the context of a wave of attacks inside Israel, large numbers of the Palestinian attackers who carried out these operations passed through Israeli military checkpoints not through the porous border between Israel and the oPt.
In total, more than , Israeli settlers, some 80 percent of the settlers living in the oPt, will be living on the western side of the wall and will thus enjoy more direct territorial contiguity with Israel. Some , are barred in isolated enclaves, in severe violation of their rights under international law. Indeed, its cost and route both seem to disprove claims that it is a temporary structure. The separation wall undoubtedly has a high human cost, one that is increasing still further the suffering of the Palestinian people.
Since the construction of the wall began in , human rights organizations have documented the immediate human impact of the wall. Amnesty International, for example, has repeatedly asserted that the wall cannot be considered a necessary or proportionate security measure and does not benefit the local Palestinian population.
On the contrary, it is regarded as an act of collective punishment, which is forbidden by international humanitarian law Article 33 of the Fourth Geneva Convention, and the restrictions allowed by Article 64 of the same Convention. Moreover, the wall has severely negative consequences for hundreds of thousands of Palestinians, including unprecedented, disproportionate and discriminatory restrictions on their movements within the oPt, as well as other violations of their fundamental rights, including the right to work, to food, to medical care, to education and to an adequate standard of living.
Entire communities, such as the 15, people in the villages of the Bir Nabala enclave, are totally surrounded by the wall. The only way in or out is through a tunnel to Ramallah which passes under the motorway that is restricted for Israeli use only. The Palestinian governorates adjacent to the separation wall; especially in Jenin, Tulkarm and Qalqiliya; are the most directly affected by its construction.
The economic impact of the wall on these regions recorded immediately after its construction has been substantial, due principally to restrictions on farming and the inaccessibility of land by its owners. These areas, once known as the breadbasket of Palestine, are home to 37 percent of all the agricultural land in the West Bank. Even if some Palestinian farmers can get a permit to enter, they are not guaranteed regular access to their land for several reasons, including:. For, while the wall separates Palestinians from their farmland and water sources and impedes their movement of produce to market in other areas of the West Bank, it also makes it difficult for tens of thousands of Palestinians to access work in Israel, mainly as day laborers on farms or construction sites, a primary source of income for many.
The danger is that serious economic and social effects of the wall will likely push some Palestinians to move, a form of indirect forced displacement and ethnic cleansing.
They also find themselves cut off from their agricultural lands and their nearby compatriots both in the West Bank and across the Green Line. The effects of the confiscation of water wells, the demolition of homes and greenhouses and the uprooting of hundreds of thousands of trees and crops are devastating.
Palestinians argue that Israel, through the wall and its associated regime, will dominate all the strategic sites of fresh water in the region, especially in Jenin, Qalqilya and Tulkarm. The Palestinian Authority has accused Israel of planning to gain control over the most important Palestinian water resources when it set out the route of the wall. The largest part of East Jerusalem will be swallowed and absorbed by the separation wall into Israel.
This would cause a dramatic change in the demographic balance of Jerusalem in favor of its Jewish population. This is part of a documented program of Judaizing the city that began in the s, according to a number of studies.
They assert that Israel has worked to uproot Palestinians in the Holy City and to separate Jerusalem from its geographical and historical connections. On 9 July , the ICJ issued its advisory opinion on the matter, stating that the construction of the wall and its associated regime could well become permanent, notwithstanding the formal characterization of the wall by Israel, in which case it would be tantamount to a de facto annexation para.
The court also called on Israel to comply with its obligation to respect the right of the Palestinian people to self-determination and its obligations under international humanitarian law and international human rights law para. The advisory opinion of the ICJ included five main findings para.
Two exceptions were Judge Buergenthal, who voted against the five findings, and Judge Kooijmans, who voted for the advisory opinion except the fourth finding. Given the complexity of the case and the huge levels of Israeli lobbying that came ahead of the decision, this remarkable consensus on the legal consequences of the separation wall gives these findings a significant and enduring place in the jurisprudence of the ICJ. Israel declared the Gaza Strip a closed military zone — a declaration that was in place until — which meant that Palestinians in Gaza had to obtain permission from Israel whenever they wanted to travel out of the closed zone.
There has to be a clear border. Without a border demarcating the lines, whoever wants to swallow 1. The structure, constructed in —, is 51 kilometers long and made mostly of barbed wire and corrugated sheet metal.
At the beginning of , al-Aqsa Intifada, Palestinian activists dismantled much of the barrier, which was rebuilt by the Israeli military between December and June , with the addition of observation posts, each of which enabled soldiers to monitor an area of roughly 6 kilometers round-the-clock.
The Israeli fence between Gaza and Egypt is 11 kilometers 6. Because Palestinians built underground tunnels in order to smuggle items such as food and weapons from Egypt, the Israeli army equipped the fence with sophisticated technology and sensors that can detect such tunnels and aid in their destruction. Despite the separation fences, regular military invasions, aerial bombings, targeted assassinations and land confiscations continue to be carried out. The construction of the fence along the perimeter of the Gaza Strip has also not stopped attacks by Palestinian militant groups, since the organizations have adopted new means to fight Israel that include the use of surface-to-surface missiles and rockets that can reach Israeli cities on the other side of the barrier.
The barrier was dismantled during the — Arab uprisings in Palestine. The fence consists of barbed wire; movement sensors and infra-red, radio, television and electronic monitors at strategic points that can locate any intrusion within meters; routine road patrols along the security road and fine sand that allows the detection of footprints.
They killed five soldiers and took two of the bodies back north into Lebanon. The event led to the outbreak of a day war between Israel and Hezbollah.
Even during periods of relative calm, the de facto Israeli-Lebanon border remains a battlefield. The stated aim of the wall was to block Palestinian tunnels, which have been in operation since at least The underground tunnels linked Gaza and Egypt as a means of communication amongst extended family members.
The wall makes tunnel digging even more dangerous than it already was. Secretary of State, Condoleezza Rice, reported that Cairo had taken concrete steps to detect and destroy the smuggling tunnels leading from Egypt to Gaza. In , as a response to pressure from the U. Rather, it alleviates the suffering of the Palestinian population caused by the Israeli-imposed blockade. The wall strangles the only lifeline available to the Palestinians in Gaza.
This has resulted in a humanitarian disaster. Therefore, Egypt, because of its status as the only gateway on the other side of Gaza, is required under international law to cease the construction of the barrier and to dismantle what is already built, as well as to open the Rafah crossing to save the Gaza population from what amounts to an Israeli blockade.
The Treaty delineated the international border between Israel and Jordan with reference to the boundary defined under the British Mandate Article 3. Israel has not fenced its entire kilometer boundary with Jordan, however, since the segment along the shore of the Dead Sea is not fenced. Much of the remaining border, though, is lined by a patrol road with fences on either side. Israel gives great importance to the project because, according to Netanyahu, once the fence with Egypt is erected, smugglers and infiltrators will look for alternative routes to enter Israel from the east.
Threats and insecurity simmer in a region whose people have never trusted Israel and its policies. Israel sought to achieve three key goals through the Bar-Lev Line: first, to maintain the military gains and geo-strategic position resulting from the war; second, to prevent any major Egyptian attack across the canal by erecting a sand wall that made the canal impassable by amphibious vehicles without destroying the barrier ; and third, to monitor Egyptian military activities on the western bank of the canal.
It was composed of 31 complex, multi-level strongholds that were each fortified with several reinforced-concrete bunkers that provided all round firing positions. Some points were equipped with napalm tanks giving the ability to cover the canal locally with fuel which would produce a sheet of flames one meter in height and raise the temperature of the water to boiling point. In , a young Egyptian engineer officer suggested a simple yet ingenious solution: open gaps in the sand wall by using water pumps.
The Egyptian Corps of Engineers combined special British and German pumps and improved them so as to effect gaps in the wall in a three-to-five hour period.
During the October war, 66 Egyptian forces surprised Israeli forces by making sixty huge gaps in the sand wall and overrunning the Bar-Lev Line. Instead of controlling Egyptian forces and preventing them from crossing the Suez Canal, the wall prevented Israeli forces from seeing the Egyptian attack. Intended to separate the Golan from the rest of Syria, an impenetrable fence enhanced by minefields was finally completed in When Palestinian and Syrian protesters broke through the barrier and crossed the cease-fire line on the day of commemoration of the Nakba, 69 as a symbolic return to their homeland, the Israeli reaction was violent; soldiers shot at the protesters, killing The resulting fence is 8 meters high, and 4 kilometers long on the side of Majd al-Shams and extends to Quneitra.
According to Israeli officials, the Israeli military has deployed new mine fields along the de facto border with Syria since many had failed during incidents that took place on days commemorating Nakba and Naksa previous wars with the Arab countries. It would prevent futher storming of the cease-fire line by Palestinian and Syrian demonstrators.
During the Syrian uprising that began in mid-March , Israel repaired some parts of the Golan fences. It also seeks the annexation of more Palestinian land, thereby defining unilaterally the borders of a future Palestinian State, continuing the ethnic cleansing of Palestinians from the oPt and diminishing the possibility of the creation of an independent and sovereign Palestinian state in the West Bank and Gaza by interrupting its territorial contiguity.
In fact, the policy of separation not only surrounds and disperses Palestinians; it also places Israel itself in a cage of its own making. New York: Maccabean Publishing Co. The title is also translated in English as The State of the Jews. These lines served as the de facto border of Israel until the war. Army Center of Military History, Washington] ; p. El-Badri, T. El-Magdoub and M. Dupuy Associates, Inc.
It refers to the destruction of Palestinian society and the creation of Israel in when ten thousand Palestinians were killed and , were forced into exile. Creative Commons - Attribution 4. Check if your institution has already acquired this book: authentification to OpenEdition Freemium for Books. You can suggest to your institution to acquire one or more ebooks published on OpenEdition Books. Do not hesitate to give them our contact information: OpenEdition - Freemium Department access openedition.
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Meanwhile, a growing number of countries worldwide have built border walls and other barriers to try to control the flow of people and goods. Her research demonstrates how popular these structures have become — there were about 15 of them in Vallet is one of a number of scholars in the field who have spoken out against man-made barriers, arguing they are expensive and dangerous and questioning their effectiveness. Several of those scholars weighed in with essays published in a recent issue of the Journal of Latin American Geography. Here in the U. Even before President Donald Trump took office, federal law required the barrier to be expanded by another almost 50 miles.
After crossing from Mexico by jumping a border fence, migrants run next to a prototype of the border wall in Otay County, California, December 21, This commentary originally appeared in the opinion section of FoxNews. Washington is literally at a standstill over the funding for a wall on the United States southern border. Putting aside the politics behind the gridlock for the moment, the substance of the debate hinges less on the need for border security and more on differing claims about the effectiveness of such a wall. After all, states have been building walls since ancient times.
Instead, it adopted the solution of expelling and displacing native Arab Palestinians. This has translated into a state with perpetual security concerns, a lasting occupation, and the annexation of more Palestinian lands. It begins by identifying three categories of barriers based on their geographical location: separation barriers in the occupied Palestinian territories barriers separating Israelis from Palestinians and barriers separating Palestinians from each other , barriers as de facto borders between Israel and Arab countries and Israeli military barriers in other occupied Arab territories e. Barriers that separate Palestinians from each other — mainly the West Bank wall — are the most painful not only because they are seen as major Israeli land-grabs but also because they affect vital aspects of Palestinian lives, especially for those who live in areas adjacent to the barriers. In March , the Israeli government decided to establish checkpoints along the de facto borders of the West Bank, similar to the Erez checkpoint that controls the movement of people in and out of the Gaza Strip.
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Over the last 50 years, 63 border walls have been built worldwide.Reply
PDF | p> Elisabeth Vallet, ed. Borders, Fences and Walls: State of Insecurity? Border Regions Series. Ed. Doris Wastl-Walter. Farnham, Surrey, UK, and | Find.Reply