# Introduction to artificial neural networks and deep learning pdf

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## INTRODUCTION TO ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK AND MACHINE LEARNING

### What is ANN?

Sign in. Neural networks and deep learning are big topics in Computer Science and in the technology industry, they currently provide the best solutions to many problems in image recognition, speech recognition and natural language processing. Recently many papers have been published featuring AI that can learn to paint, build 3D Models, create user interfaces pix2code , some create images given a sentence and there are many more incredible things being done everyday using neural networks.

The definition of a neural network, more properly referred to as an 'artificial' neural network ANN , is provided by the inventor of one of the first neurocomputers, Dr. Robert Hecht-Nielsen. He defines a neural network as:. Or you can also think of Artificial Neural Network as computational model that is inspired by the way biological neural networks in the human brain process information.

The basic computational unit of the brain is a neuron. The diagram below shows a cartoon drawing of a biological neuron left and a common mathematical model right. The basic unit of computation in a neural network is the neuron , often called a node or unit. It receives input from some other nodes, or from an external source and computes an output. Each input has an associated weight w , which is assigned on the basis of its relative importance to other inputs.

The node applies a function to the weighted sum of its inputs. The idea is that the synaptic strengths the weights w are learnable and control the strength of influence and its direction: excitory positive weight or inhibitory negative weight of one neuron on another. In the basic model, the dendrites carry the signal to the cell body where they all get summed.

If the final sum is above a certain threshold, the neuron can fire , sending a spike along its axon. In the computational model, we assume that the precise timings of the spikes do not matter, and that only the frequency of the firing communicates information. From the above explanation we can conclude that a neural network is made of neurons, biologically the neurons are connected through synapses where informations flows weights for out computational model , when we train a neural network we want the neurons to fire whenever they learn specific patterns from the data, and we model the fire rate using an activation function.

There are many classes of neural networks and these classes also have sub-classes, here I will list the most used ones and make things simple to move on in this journey to learn neural networks.

A feedforward neural network is an artificial neural network where connections between the units do not form a cycle. In this network, the information moves in only one direction, forward, from the input nodes, through the hidden nodes if any and to the output nodes.

There are no cycles or loops in the network. We can distinguish two types of feedforward neural networks:. This is the simplest feedforward neural Network and does not contain any hidden layer, Which means it only consists of a single layer of output nodes. This is said to be single because when we count the layers we do not include the input layer, the reason for that is because at the input layer no computations is done, the inputs are fed directly to the outputs via a series of weights.

This class of networks consists of multiple layers of computational units, usually interconnected in a feed-forward way. Each neuron in one layer has directed connections to the neurons of the subsequent layer. In many applications the units of these networks apply a sigmoid function as an activation function. Convolutional Neural Networks are very similar to ordinary Neural Networks, they are made up of neurons that have learnable weights and biases. In convolutional neural network CNN, or ConvNet or shift invariant or space invariant the unit connectivity pattern is inspired by the organization of the visual cortex, Units respond to stimuli in a restricted region of space known as the receptive field.

Receptive fields partially overlap, over-covering the entire visual field. Unit response can be approximated mathematically by a convolution operation. They are variations of multilayer perceptrons that use minimal preprocessing. Their wide applications is in image and video recognition, recommender systems and natural language processing. CNNs requires large data to train on.

In recurrent neural network RNN , connections between units form a directed cycle they propagate data forward, but also backwards, from later processing stages to earlier stages.

This allows it to exhibit dynamic temporal behavior. Unlike feedforward neural networks, RNNs can use their internal memory to process arbitrary sequences of inputs.

This makes them applicable to tasks such as unsegmented, connected handwriting recognition, speech recognition and other general sequence processors. Every activation function or non-linearity takes a single number and performs a certain fixed mathematical operation on it.

Here are some activations functions you will often find in practice:. In the next post I will bring some code examples and explain a bit more of how we can train neural networks.

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Your home for data science. A Medium publication sharing concepts, ideas and codes. Get started. Open in app. David Fumo. Introduction Neural networks and deep learning are big topics in Computer Science and in the technology industry, they currently provide the best solutions to many problems in image recognition, speech recognition and natural language processing.

He defines a neural network as: " Biological motivation and connections The basic computational unit of the brain is a neuron. Neural Network Architecture From the above explanation we can conclude that a neural network is made of neurons, biologically the neurons are connected through synapses where informations flows weights for out computational model , when we train a neural network we want the neurons to fire whenever they learn specific patterns from the data, and we model the fire rate using an activation function.

A block of nodes is also called layer. Hidden nodes hidden layer : In Hidden layers is where intermediate processing or computation is done, they perform computations and then transfer the weights signals or information from the input layer to the following layer another hidden layer or to the output layer. Output Nodes output layer : Here we finally use an activation function that maps to the desired output format e.

Connections and weights: The network consists of connections, each connection transferring the output of a neuron i to the input of a neuron j. In this sense i is the predecessor of j and j is the successor of i , Each connection is assigned a weight Wij.

Activation function: the activation function of a node defines the output of that node given an input or set of inputs. This is similar to the behavior of the linear perceptron in neural networks. However, it is the nonlinear activation function that allows such networks to compute nontrivial problems using only a small number of nodes. In artificial neural networks this function is also called the transfer function. Learning rule: The learning rule is a rule or an algorithm which modifies the parameters of the neural network, in order for a given input to the network to produce a favored output.

This learning process typically amounts to modifying the weights and thresholds. Types of Neural Networks There are many classes of neural networks and these classes also have sub-classes, here I will list the most used ones and make things simple to move on in this journey to learn neural networks. Feedforward Neural Network A feedforward neural network is an artificial neural network where connections between the units do not form a cycle.

We can distinguish two types of feedforward neural networks: 1. Single-layer Perceptron This is the simplest feedforward neural Network and does not contain any hidden layer, Which means it only consists of a single layer of output nodes. Sign up for The Variable. Get this newsletter. More from Towards Data Science Follow. Read more from Towards Data Science. More From Medium. Madison Hunter in Towards Data Science. Mahmoud Harmouch in Towards Data Science. Christopher Tao in Towards Data Science.

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## 1.2. Multi-layer perceptron (MLP)

A neural network is a network or circuit of neurons , or in a modern sense, an artificial neural network , composed of artificial neurons or nodes. The connections of the biological neuron are modeled as weights. A positive weight reflects an excitatory connection, while negative values mean inhibitory connections. All inputs are modified by a weight and summed. This activity is referred to as a linear combination. Finally, an activation function controls the amplitude of the output.

### INTRODUCTION TO ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK AND MACHINE LEARNING

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Christopher D. Manning, Dec 1.

#### Barry D.

ANNs are at the very core of Deep Learning. They are versatile, powerful, and scalable, making them ideal to tackle large and highly complex Machine Learning.

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