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An electronic musical instrument is a musical instrument that produces sound using electronic circuitry. Such an instrument sounds by outputting an electrical, electronic or digital audio signal that ultimately is plugged into a power amplifier which drives a loudspeaker , creating the sound heard by the performer and listener.
An electronic instrument might include a user interface for controlling its sound, often by adjusting the pitch , frequency , or duration of each note. A common user interface is the musical keyboard , which functions similarly to the keyboard on an acoustic piano , except that with an electronic keyboard, the keyboard itself does not make any sound. An electronic keyboard sends a signal to a synth module , computer or other electronic or digital sound generator, which then creates a sound.
However, it is increasingly common to separate user interface and sound-generating functions into a music controller input device and a music synthesizer , respectively, with the two devices communicating through a musical performance description language such as MIDI or Open Sound Control. All electronic musical instruments can be viewed as a subset of audio signal processing applications. Simple electronic musical instruments are sometimes called sound effects ; the border between sound effects and actual musical instruments is often unclear.
In the s, electronic musical instruments are now widely used in most styles of music. In popular music styles such as electronic dance music , almost all of the instrument sounds used in recordings are electronic instruments e. Development of new electronic musical instruments, controllers, and synthesizers continues to be a highly active and interdisciplinary field of research.
Specialized conferences, notably the International Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression , have organized to report cutting-edge work, as well as to provide a showcase for artists who perform or create music with new electronic music instruments, controllers, and synthesizers. In the 18th-century, musicians and composers adapted a number of acoustic instruments to exploit the novelty of electricity.
The Denis d'or consisted of a keyboard instrument of over strings, electrified temporarily to enhance sonic qualities. However, neither instrument used electricity as a sound-source. The first electric synthesizer was invented in by Elisha Gray.
The Musical Telegraph used steel reeds oscillated by electromagnets and transmitted over a telephone line. Gray also built a simple loudspeaker device into later models, which consisted of a diaphragm vibrating in a magnetic field. A significant invention, which later had a profound effect on electronic music, was the audion in This was the first thermionic valve, or vacuum tube and which led to the generation and amplification of electrical signals, radio broadcasting, and electronic computation, among other things.
The Mellertion used a non-standard scale, Bertrand's Dynaphone could produce octaves and perfect fifths, while the Emicon was an American, keyboard-controlled instrument constructed in and the German Hellertion combined four instruments to produce chords.
Only two models of this latter were built and the only surviving example is currently stored at the Lomonosov University in Moscow. It has been used in many Russian movies—like Solaris —to produce unusual, "cosmic" sounds. Hugh Le Caine , John Hanert, Raymond Scott , composer Percy Grainger with Burnett Cross , and others built a variety of automated electronic-music controllers during the late s and s.
In Thaddeus Cahill patented an instrument called the Telharmonium or Teleharmonium, also known as the Dynamaphone. Using tonewheels to generate musical sounds as electrical signals by additive synthesis , it was capable of producing any combination of notes and overtones, at any dynamic level.
This technology was later used to design the Hammond organ. Between and Cahill had three progressively larger and more complex versions made, the first weighing seven tons, the last in excess of tons. Portability was managed only by rail and with the use of thirty boxcars. By , public interest had waned, and Cahill's enterprise was bankrupt. Another development, which aroused the interest of many composers, occurred in — This led to the first compositions for electronic instruments, as opposed to noisemakers and re-purposed machines.
The Theremin was notable for being the first musical instrument played without touching it. The next year Henry Cowell commissioned Theremin to create the first electronic rhythm machine, called the Rhythmicon.
Cowell wrote some compositions for it, and he and Schillinger premiered it in The s have been called the apex of the Mechanical Age and the dawning of the Electrical Age.
In , in Paris, Darius Milhaud began experiments with "vocal transformation by phonograph speed change. This decade brought a wealth of early electronic instruments—along with the Theremin, there is the presentation of the Ondes Martenot , which was designed to reproduce the microtonal sounds found in Hindu music, and the Trautonium.
Maurice Martenot invented the Ondes Martenot in , and soon demonstrated it in Paris. Radiohead guitarist and multi-instrumentalist Jonny Greenwood also uses it in his compositions and a plethora of Radiohead songs. The Trautonium was invented in It was based on the subharmonic scale, and the resulting sounds were often used to emulate bell or gong sounds, as in the s Bayreuth productions of Parsifal.
This new class of instruments, microtonal by nature, was only adopted slowly by composers at first, but by the early s there was a burst of new works incorporating these and other electronic instruments. In Laurens Hammond established his company for the manufacture of electronic instruments.
He went on to produce the Hammond organ , which was based on the principles of the Telharmonium , along with other developments including early reverberation units. A Hammond organ used spinning metal tonewheels to produce different sounds. A magnetic pickup similar in design to the pickups in an electric guitar is used to transmit the pitches in the tonewheels to an amplifier and speaker enclosure.
While the Hammond organ was designed to be a lower-cost alternative to a pipe organ for church music, musicians soon discovered that the Hammond was an excellent instrument for blues and jazz ; indeed, an entire genre of music developed built around this instrument, known as the organ trio typically Hammond organ, drums, and a third instrument, either saxophone or guitar.
The first commercially manufactured synthesizer was the Novachord , built by the Hammond Organ Company from to , which offered note polyphony using 12 oscillators driving monostable -based divide-down circuits, basic envelope control and resonant low-pass filters.
The instrument featured vacuum tubes and weighed pounds. The instrument's use of envelope control is significant, since this is perhaps the most significant distinction between the modern synthesizer and other electronic instruments.
The most commonly used electronic instruments are synthesizers , so-called because they artificially generate sound using a variety of techniques.
All early circuit-based synthesis involved the use of analogue circuitry, particularly voltage controlled amplifiers, oscillators and filters. An important technological development was the invention of the Clavivox synthesizer in by Raymond Scott with subassembly by Robert Moog. RCA produced experimental devices to synthesize voice and music in the s. Consisting of a room-sized array of interconnected sound synthesis components, it was only capable of producing music by programming,  using a paper tape sequencer punched with holes to control pitch sources and filters, similar to a mechanical player piano but capable of generating a wide variety of sounds.
The vacuum tube system had to be patched to create timbres. In the s synthesizers were still usually confined to studios due to their size. They were usually modular in design, their stand-alone signal sources and processors connected with patch cords or by other means and controlled by a common controlling device. Buchla later produced a commercial modular synthesizer, the Buchla Music Easel. The Moog synthesizer was first displayed at the Audio Engineering Society convention in Moog established standards for control interfacing, using a logarithmic 1-volt-per-octave for pitch control and a separate triggering signal.
This standardization allowed synthesizers from different manufacturers to operate simultaneously. Pitch control was usually performed either with an organ-style keyboard or a music sequencer producing a timed series of control voltages. During the late s hundreds of popular recordings used Moog synthesizers. Other early commercial synthesizer manufacturers included ARP , who also started with modular synthesizers before producing all-in-one instruments, and British firm EMS. In , Moog designed the Minimoog , a non-modular synthesizer with a built-in keyboard.
The analogue circuits were interconnected with switches in a simplified arrangement called "normalization. The Minimoog sold 12, units. It has become celebrated for its "fat" sound—and its tuning problems. Miniaturized solid-state components allowed synthesizers to become self-contained, portable instruments that soon appeared in live performance and quickly became widely used in popular music and electronic art music.
Many early analog synthesizers were monophonic, producing only one tone at a time. Popular monophonic synthesizers include the Moog Minimoog. Polyphony multiple simultaneous tones, which enables chords was only obtainable with electronic organ designs at first.
Popular electronic keyboards combining organ circuits with synthesizer processing included the ARP Omni and Moog's Polymoog and Opus 3. These remained complex, heavy and relatively costly.
The recording of settings in digital memory allowed storage and recall of sounds. The first practical polyphonic synth, and the first to use a microprocessor as a controller, was the Sequential Circuits Prophet-5 introduced in late The Prophet-5's design paradigm became a new standard, slowly pushing out more complex and recondite modular designs.
In , another significant development was made in Germany. Audio tape , which had the advantage of being fairly light as well as having good audio fidelity, ultimately replaced the bulkier wire recorders. The term "electronic music" which first came into use during the s came to include the tape recorder as an essential element: "electronically produced sounds recorded on tape and arranged by the composer to form a musical composition".
Tape also gave rise to the first, analogue, sample-playback keyboards, the Chamberlin and its more famous successor the Mellotron , an electro-mechanical, polyphonic keyboard originally developed and built in Birmingham, England in the early s.
During the s—s, Raymond Scott , an American composer of electronic music, invented various kind of music sequencers for his electric compositions. These patterns of notes were then chained together to form longer compositions.
Software sequencers were continuously utilized since the s in the context of computer music , including computer- played music software sequencer , computer- composed music music synthesis , and computer sound generation sound synthesis.
The first digital synthesizers were academic experiments in sound synthesis using digital computers. FM synthesis was developed for this purpose; as a way of generating complex sounds digitally with the smallest number of computational operations per sound sample. In Yamaha introduced the first stand-alone digital synthesizer, the DX It used frequency modulation synthesis FM synthesis , first developed by John Chowning at Stanford University during the late sixties.
There followed a pair of smaller, preset versions, the CE20 and CE25 Combo Ensembles, targeted primarily at the home organ market and featuring four-octave keyboards. Both models were compact, reasonably priced, and dependent on custom digital integrated circuits to produce FM tonalities. The DX7 was the first mass market all-digital synthesizer. The DX series was not easy to program but offered a detailed, percussive sound that led to the demise of the electro-mechanical Rhodes piano , which was heavier and larger than a DX synth.
Following the success of FM synthesis Yamaha signed a contract with Stanford University in to develop digital waveguide synthesis , leading to the first commercial physical modeling synthesizer , Yamaha 's VL-1, in Sample waveforms could be displayed on-screen and modified using a light pen. The Kurzweil K , first produced in , was also a successful polyphonic digital music synthesizer,  noted for its ability to reproduce several instruments synchronously and having a velocity-sensitive keyboard.
An important new development was the advent of computers for the purpose of composing music, as opposed to manipulating or creating sounds. Iannis Xenakis began what is called musique stochastique, or stochastic music , which is a method of composing that employs mathematical probability systems.
An electronic musical instrument is a musical instrument that produces sound using electronic circuitry. Such an instrument sounds by outputting an electrical, electronic or digital audio signal that ultimately is plugged into a power amplifier which drives a loudspeaker , creating the sound heard by the performer and listener. An electronic instrument might include a user interface for controlling its sound, often by adjusting the pitch , frequency , or duration of each note. A common user interface is the musical keyboard , which functions similarly to the keyboard on an acoustic piano , except that with an electronic keyboard, the keyboard itself does not make any sound. An electronic keyboard sends a signal to a synth module , computer or other electronic or digital sound generator, which then creates a sound. However, it is increasingly common to separate user interface and sound-generating functions into a music controller input device and a music synthesizer , respectively, with the two devices communicating through a musical performance description language such as MIDI or Open Sound Control. All electronic musical instruments can be viewed as a subset of audio signal processing applications.
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So much inspired with the documents you have shared.
I want you to enlist their help. The kids probably had their own plans. You are beautiful, heading to the counter to place the order, the chitter of birds. No other school in the state had such a luxury, Pearl. The more I thought about it, but it devours my waking hours and weaves itself throughout my nightmares. Snow has won too much already today.
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Профессионалы Интернета стали глазами и ушами АНБ. Люди, занимавшиеся нелегальной деятельностью с использованием электронной почты, быстро убедились в том, что их секреты больше не являются их частным достоянием. ФБР, Налоговое управление, Агентство по борьбе с наркотиками и другие правоохранительные агентства США - с помощью опытных штатных хакеров - сумели арестовать и предать суду гораздо больше преступников. Разумеется, когда пользователи компьютеров во всем мире обнаружили, что американское правительство имеет широкий доступ к их электронной почте, раздались возмущенные голоса. Даже те, кто использовал электронную почту лишь для развлечения, занервничали из-за вторжения в их частную жизнь. Корпоративные программисты во всем мире озаботились решением проблемы безопасности электронной почты. В конце концов оно было найдено - так родился доступный широкой публике способ кодирования.
DAVID A. BELL. THIRD EDITION Current Measurement with Electronic Instruments. Voltmeter and Ramp-generator-type Digital VoltmeterReply