File Name: poultry health and disease .zip
An easy to handle and practical booklet for basic understanding of the most important poultry diseases for people working in poultry management. This is the fifth updated version printed in with new additional information based on the new developments in Poultry Diseases and progress of the MSD Animal Health Poultry Research in developing additional new products. MSD Animal Health Research is committed to co-operate with the poultry industry worldwide to develop and support solutions to control poultry diseases.
MSD Animal Health is more than vaccines alone. The best is to remove and destroy a! Strict hygiene in breeder hatching eggs and hatchery management is necessary. Choice and quality of litter is also important to prevent that spore bearing wood shavings or straw are used. Hatchery control with anti-fungal disinfectant may be critical to cleaning and disinfection procedures to control fungus infection. Gross lesions of the lungs Aspergillosis Fungal Pneumonia Cause The principal fungus causing Aspergillosis in poultry is Aspergillus fumigatus.
Transmission Transmission is by inhalation of fungus spores from contaminated litter e. Hatcheries may also contribute to infection of chicks. Species a! Older chickens are more resistant to infection.
Turkey poults, pheasants, quails, ducklings, and goslings may also become infected. Clinical signs Infected chickens are depressed and thirsty. Gasping and rapid breathing can be observed. Gross lesions involve the lungs and airsacs primarily. Yellow-white pin head sized lesions can be found. Sometimes all body cavities are filled with small yellow-green granular fungus growth. Diagnosis The presence of Aspergillus fumigatus can be identified microscopically or sometimes even with the naked eye in the air passages of the lungs, in the airsacs or in lesions of the abdominal cavity.
Aspergillosis can be confirmed by isolation and identification of the fungus from lesions. Currently we know there are 16 H- types and 9 N-types and they can show up in all kinds of combinations.
For poultry the most important ones are H5, H7 and H9. Transmission AI virus is excreted from nares, mouth, conjunctiva and cloaca. Airborne virus particles from the respiratory tract, droppings, and people carrying virus on their clothing and equipment are the main routes of transmission.
Migratory water fowl and other wild birds infected with AI virus may be a source of infection. In poultry production main problems are in chickens, turkeys and ducks. Clinical signs Clinical signs will vary, depending on the pathogenicity HPAI and LPAI of AI virus involved and other factors as host species, sex, concurrent infections, acquired immunity and environmental factors. LPAI shows generally mild symptoms: respiratory coughing sneezing, wet eyes, nasal discharge depression, lethargy limited reduction of feed intake and limited drop in egg production; low mortality rate.
Treatment There is no treatment for Avian Influenza. Antibiotics will help to control secondary bacterial infections. Prevention and control In many countries AI is a notifiable disease with specific local regulations on its control.
Vaccination is generally done with inactivated AI vaccines based on the strain H-type causing the outbreaks
This study analyzed the effects of different broiler production systems on health care costs in the Netherlands. In addition to the conventional production system, the analysis also included 5 alternative animal welfare systems representative of the Netherlands. The study was limited to the most prevalent and economically relevant endemic diseases in the broiler farms. Health care costs consisted of losses and expenditures. The study investigated whether higher animal welfare standards increased health care costs, in both absolute and relative terms, and also examined which cost components losses or expenditures were affected and, if so, to what extent. The results show that health care costs represent only a small proportion of total production costs in each production system. Losses account for the major part of health care costs, which makes it difficult to detect the actual effect of diseases on total health care costs.
Biosecurity is a commonly used poultry industry term that can be defined simply as "informed common sense. The objective would be to have a program design such that the diseases are not brought onto the poultry farm and poultry are not brought to diseases. An effective biosecurity program allows one to keep diseases off poultry farms; or if disease organisms are present, such a program would eliminate them or at least reduce them to a level of little or no significance. Poultry veterinarians have been attempting to control diseases by improving biosecurity practices. As poultry farms became larger and more intensive, disease outbreaks became more costly; as the lifespan of broilers decreased because of improved genetics and feedings, birds did not have sufficient time to recover from diseases and make it to processing. Veterinarians often find it difficult to convince many farm managers of the importance of biosecurity programs.
The best fed and housed stock with the best genetic potential will not grow and produce efficiently if they become diseased or infested with parasites. Infectious disease causing agents will spread through a flock very quickly because of the high stocking densities of commercially housed poultry. For poultry health management to be effective a primary aim must be to prevent the onset of disease or parasites, to recognise at an early stage the presence of disease or parasites, and to treat all flocks that are diseased or infested with parasites as soon as possible and before they develop into a serious condition or spread to other flocks. To be able to do this it is necessary to know how to recognise that the birds are diseased, the action required for preventing or minimising disease and how to monitor for signs that the prevention program is working.
An easy to handle and practical booklet for basic understanding of the most important poultry diseases for people working in poultry management.