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All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, withou permission in writing from the publisher.
Details on how to seek permission, further information about the Publisher's permissions policies and our arrangements with organizations such as the copyright clearance center andtheCopyrightLicensingAgency,canbefoundatourwebsitewww. As new research and experience broaden our understanding, changes in research methods, professional practices, or medical treatment may become necessary Practitioners and researchers must always rely on their own experience and know ledge in evaluating and using any information, methods, compounds, or experiments described herein.
The name"Machine Learning "indicates what all these disciplines have in common, that is, to learn from data, and then make predictions What one tries to learn from data is their underlying structure and regularities, via the development of a model, which can then be used to provide predictions To this end, a number of diverse approaches have been developed, ranging from optimization of cost functions, whose goal is to optimize the deviation between what one observes from data and what the model predicts, to probabilistic models that attempt to model the statistical properties of the observed The goal of this book is to approach the machine learning discipline in a unifying context y presenting the major paths and approaches that have been followed over the years, without giving preference to a specific one.
It is the author's belief that all of them are valuable to the newcomer who wants to learn the secrets of this topic, from the applications as well as from the pedagogic point of view.
As the title of the book indicates, the emphasis is on the processing and analysis front of machine learning and not on topics concerning the theory of learning itself and related performance bounds In other words, the focus is on methods and algorithms closer to the application level The book is the outgrowth of more than three decades of the authors experience on research and teaching various related courses The book is written in such a way that individual or pairs of chapters are as self-contained as possible.
Some guidelines on how one can use the book for different courses are provided in the introductory chapter. Each chapter grows by starting from the basics and evolving to embrace the more recent advances Some of the topics had to be split into two chapters, such as sparsity-aware learning, Bayesian learning, probabilistic graphical models, and Monte Carlo methods.
The book addresses the needs of advanced graduate, postgraduate, and research students as well as of practicing scientists and engineers whose interests lie beyond black-box solutions.
Also, the book can serve the needs of short courses on specific topics, e. The solutions manual as well as power Point lectures are also available from the book's website X Acknowledgments Writing a book is an effort on top of every thing else that must keep running in parallel. Thus, writing is basically an early morning, after five, and over the weekends and holidays activity. It is a big effort that requires dedication and persistence. This would not be possible without the support of a number of people-people who helped in the simulations, in the making of the figures, in reading chapters, and in discussing various issues concerning all aspects, from proofs to the structure and the layout of the book First, I would like to express my gratitude to my mentor, friend, and colleague Nicholas Kalouptsidis for this long-lasting and fruitful collaboration The cooperation with Kostas Slavakis over the last six years has been a major source of inspiration and learning and has played a decisive role for me in writing this book I am indebted to the members of my group, and in particular to Yannis Kopsinis, Pantelis Bouboulis Chouvardas, Kostas Themelis, George Papageorgiou, and Charis Georgiou.
They were beside me the whole time, especially during the difficult final stages of the completion of the manuscript My colleagues aggelos Pikrakis, Kostas Koutroumbas, Dimitris Kosmopoulos, George Giannakopou los, and Spyros Evaggelatos gave a lot of their time for discussions, helping in the simulations, and reading chapters Without my two sabbaticals during the spring semesters of and , I doubt i would have ever finished this book.
Special thanks to all my colleagues in the Department of Informatics and Telecommunications of the National and Kapodistrian University of athens During my sabbatical in , i was honored to be a holder of an Excellence Chair in Carlos Ill University of Madrid and spent the time with the group of Anibal Figuieras-Vidal. I am indebted to Anibal for his invitation and all the fruitful discussions and the bottles of excellent red spanish wine we had together. Special thanks to Jeronimo Arenas-Garcia and Antonio Artes-Rodriguez, who have also introduced me to aspects of traditional spanish culture During my sabbatical in , I was also honored to be an otto m nsted guest professor at the Technical University of Denmark with the group of Lars Kai Hansen.
I am indebted to him for the invitation and our enjoyable and insightful discussions as well as his constructive comments on reviewing chapters of the book and for the visits to the Danish museums on weekends. Also, special thanks to Jan Larsen and morten m rup for the fruitful discussions A number of colleagues were kind enough to read and review chapters and parts of the book and come back with valuable comments and criticisms.
Although every symbol is defined in the text prior to its use, it may be convenient for the reader to have the list of major symbols summarized together. The list is presented below Vectors are denoted with boldface letters. Matrices are denoted with capital letters, such as a The determinant of a matrix is denoted as det a, and sometimes as al A diagonal matrix with elements al, a2, The same is true for random matrices, denoted as X and their values asd onding Similarly, random vectors are denoted with roman boldface, such as x, and the corresponding The vectors are assumed to be column-vectors.
In other words 1 x 2 x That is, the ith element of a vector can be represented either with a subscript xi or as x i This is because the vectors may have already been given another subscript; xn, and the notation can be cluttered Matrices are written as x11x12 X 1,1 1,2.
Also, at the heart of any scientific field lies the development of models often they are called theories in order to explain the available experimental evidence at each time period. In other words, we always learn from data. Different data and different focuses on the data give rise to different scientific disciplines This book is about learning from data; in particular, our intent is to detect and unveil a possible hidden structure and regularity patterns associated with their generation mechanism.
This information in turn helps our analysis and understanding of the nature of the data, which can be used to make predictions for the future.
Besides modeling the underlying structure, a major direction of significant interest in Machine Learning is to develop efficient algorithms for designing the models and also for analysis and prediction. The latter part is gaining importance in the dawn of what we call the big data era when one has to deal with massive amounts of data, which may be represented in spaces of very large dimensionality.
Analyzing data for such applications sets demands on algorithms to be computationally efficient and at the same time robust in their performance, because some of these data are contaminated with large noise and also, in some cases, the data may have missing values Such methods and techniques have been at the center of scientific research for a number of decades in various disciplines, such as Statistics and Statistical Learning, Pattern Recognition, Signal and Image Processing and Analysis, Computer Science, Data Mining, Machine Vision, Bioinformatics, Industrial Automation, and Computer-Aided Medical Diagnosis, to name a few.
In spite of the different names there is a common corpus of techniques that are used in all of them and we will refer to such methods as Machine Learning. This name has gained popularity over the last decade or so. For example, in X-ray mammography, we are given an image where a region indicates the existence of a tumor.
The goal of a computer-aided diagnosis system is to predict whether this tumor corresponds to the benign or the malignant class. Optical character recognition OCR systems are also built around a classification system, in which the image corresponding to each letter of the alphabet has to be recognized and assigned to one of the twenty-four for the Latin alphabet classes; see Section Another example is the prediction of the authorship of a given text. Given a text written by an unknown author, the goal of a classification system is to predict the author among a number of authors classes ; this application is treated in Section 11 15 The first step in designing any machine learning task is to decide how to represent each pattern in he computer.
This is achieved during the preprocessing stage; one has to"encode related information that resides in the raw data image pixels or strings of letters in the previous examples in an efficient and information-rich way. This is usually done by transforming the raw data in a new space with each pattern represented by a vector, r e TRl This is known as the feature vector, and its elements are known as the features.
In this way, each pattern becomes a single point in an l-dimensional space, known as the feature space or the input space. We refer to this as the feature generation stage. To keep our discussion simple, let us focus on the two-class case. Based on the training data, one then designs a function, f, which predicts the output label given the input; that is given the measured values of the features.
This function is known as the classifier. In general, we need to design a set of such functions Once the classifier has been designed, the system is ready for predictions. Figure 1. I illustrates the classification task. Initially, we are given the set of points, each representing a pattern in the two-dimensional space two features used, x1, x2.
Stars belong to one class, say 1 and the crosses to the other, o2, in a two-class classification task. These are the training points. Then, we are given the point denoted by the red circle; this corresponds to the measured values from a pattern whose.
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Machine Learning: A Bayesian and Optimization Perspective, 2nd edition, gives a unified perspective on machine learning. English Pages [] Year This unique book introduces a variety of techniques designed to represent, enhance and empower multi-disciplinary and mu. Dive into hyperparameter tuning of machine learning models and focus on what hyperparameters are and how they work. This textbook introduces linear algebra and optimization in the context of machine learning. Examples and exercises are. This book on optimization includes forewords by Michael I.
The book presents the major machine learning methods as they have been developed in different disciplines, such as statistics, statistical and adaptive signal processing and computer science. Focusing on the physical reasoning behind the mathematics, all the various methods and techniques are explained in depth, supported by examples and problems, giving an invaluable resource to the student and researcher for understanding and applying machine learning concepts. It covers a broad selection of topics ranging from classical regression and classification techniques to more recent ones including sparse modeling, convex optimization, Bayesian learning, graphical models and neural networks, giving it a very modern feel and making it highly relevant in the deep learning era. While other widely used machine learning textbooks tend to sacrifice clarity for elegance, Professor Theodoridis provides you with enough detail and insights to understand the "fine print". This makes the book indispensable for the active machine learner.
Machine Learning: A Bayesian and Optimization Perspective, 2nd edition , gives a unified perspective on machine learning by covering both pillars of supervised learning, namely regression and classification. The book starts with the basics, including mean square, least squares and maximum likelihood methods, ridge regression, Bayesian decision theory classification, logistic regression, and decision trees. It then progresses to more recent techniques, covering sparse modelling methods, learning in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces and support vector machines, Bayesian inference with a focus on the EM algorithm and its approximate inference variational versions, Monte Carlo methods, probabilistic graphical models focusing on Bayesian networks, hidden Markov models, and particle filtering. Dimensionality reduction and latent variables modelling are also considered in depth. This palette of techniques concludes with an extended chapter on neural networks and deep learning architectures.
What one tries to study from knowledge is their underlying construction and regularities, by way of the event of a mannequin, which may then be used to offer predictions. To this finish, quite a lot of various approaches have been developed, starting from optimization of price capabilities, whose aim is to optimize the deviation between what one observes from knowledge and what the mannequin predicts, to probabilistic fashions that try to mannequin the statistical properties of the noticed knowledge. The aim of this guide is to method the machine studying self-discipline in a unifying context, by presenting the most important paths and approaches which have been adopted through the years, with out giving choice to a selected one.
Machine Learning: A Bayesian and Optimization Perspective, 2 nd edition , gives a unified perspective on machine learning by covering both pillars of supervised learning, namely regression and classification. The book starts with the basics, including mean square, least squares and maximum likelihood methods, ridge regression, Bayesian decision theory classification, logistic regression, and decision trees. It then progresses to more recent techniques, covering sparse modelling methods, learning in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces and support vector machines, Bayesian inference with a focus on the EM algorithm and its approximate inference variational versions, Monte Carlo methods, probabilistic graphical models focusing on Bayesian networks, hidden Markov models and particle filtering.
Machine Learning: A Bayesian and Optimization Perspective, 2nd edition , gives a unified perspective on machine learning by covering both pillars of supervised learning, namely regression and classification. The book starts with the basics, including mean square, least squares and maximum likelihood methods, ridge regression, Bayesian decision theory classification, logistic regression, and decision trees.
Machine Learning: A Bayesian and Optimization Perspective, Second Edition, gives a unifying perspective on machine learning by covering both probabilistic and deterministic approaches based on optimization techniques combined with the Bayesian inference approach. In addition, sections cover major machine learning methods developed in different disciplines, such as statistics, statistical and adaptive signal processing and computer science. Focusing on the physical reasoning behind the mathematics, all the various methods and techniques are explained in depth and supported by examples and problems, giving an invaluable resource to both the student and researcher for understanding and applying machine learning concepts. This updated edition includes many more simple examples on basic theory, complete rewrites of the chapter on Neural Networks and Deep Learning, and expanded treatment of Bayesian learning, including Nonparametric Bayesian Learning.
All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, withou permission in writing from the publisher. Details on how to seek permission, further information about the Publisher's permissions policies and our arrangements with organizations such as the copyright clearance center andtheCopyrightLicensingAgency,canbefoundatourwebsitewww. As new research and experience broaden our understanding, changes in research methods, professional practices, or medical treatment may become necessary Practitioners and researchers must always rely on their own experience and know ledge in evaluating and using any information, methods, compounds, or experiments described herein.
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